In 2014, Estoril celebrated its first 100 years by recalling Fausto Figueiredo’s dream-like resort. Early literary descriptions of this city reveal an area whose outstanding feminine traits took on the artifice of fashion in a way that could drive men wild. This resort became internationally renowned for its finesse and civility. Its architectural features, seaside valley and its leisure programs were enjoyed by a growing number of visitors. Estoril’s elegant shops sold Paris’ latest fashion. Lisbon’s finest magazines advertised clothing meant to be worn while playing golf to complement Estoril’s natural scenery. A women’s magazine published beauty tips and featured models that were portrayed in specific social locations well-known and appreciated by middle and upper class ladies. Estoril’s Casino used all resources at its disposal to organize refined afternoon programs and entertain a growing commercial niche market. These programs ranged from hair styling competitions to talks about cosmetics, or fashion shows with catwalks. The 1930s also witnessed a ‘chromatic revolution’, as far as tourists’ skin tones were concerned. The Suntan Age had arrived that cast away by-gone days of the Thermal Era. It did so with the help of young Hollywood stars and British theater star Heather Thatcher. As Wolff explains, women’s tanned body became a trophy that attracted men to coastal resorts where beauty and bathing suits contests assisted in the making of a social threshold. During this era, life in Estoril evoked a somewhat gray area of gender contact that Turner and Shield refer to as a liminal place, where society’s rules were slightly bent… for a while.
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The 1930s horror films have provoked public outcry in nearly every country in which they were shown. They tested the limits of representation of violent or gruesome acts, which made them highly controversial in their day. In Belgium, however, all of these films passed without cuts and, perhaps more importantly, without any sign of public indignation. The press described them as “infantile,” “messy” and, in the best case, “funny.” In this paper, I will map out this “liberal” attitude of Belgian film censors and critics by focussing on the historical reception of these 1930s horror films. In this way, I want to demonstrate that the boundaries of acceptable representations of violence in a society do not solely depend on the intrinsic qualities of a text but are also the result of the specific historical context in which they appear. Contextual factors such as bad dubbing, a European Film ideal, attitudes towards the use of special effects and the lack of the term “horror” all made it that, in Belgium, the monsters failed to scare.
and Copenhagen. As for the others, Esaias Thorén, Sven Jonson and Stellan Mörner left Halmstad for Stockholm during the early 1930s. 2 Axel Olson was the only one who never left Halmstad. However, the
Indonesia in the 1920s and 1930s
The experiences and remembered histories of these years helped shape the agendas of post-independence labour unions.
© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI: 10.1163/179325410X526122 Also available online – brill.nl/jco Journal of Chinese Overseas 6 (2010) 250-285 brill.nl/jco Chinese Chicago: Transnational Migration and Businesses, 1870s–1930s Huping Ling 1 Abstract Employing the theoretical framework of
Edited by Charmian Brinson and Marian Malet
neglected in youth ministry, perhaps due to an underestimation of its practical value. This paper will seek to raise issues of a practical nature related to methodology and the formation of religious identity in youth ministry on the basis of historical research. This paper will argue that the 1930s was a
This essay surveys Beckett's response to Romantic literature and painting in the 1930s. It examines the way he dismissed its sentimentality and elaborate style but was attracted to a particular strand of Romanticism that portrayed a melancholic sensibility.
Chinese Communities in Western Siberia in the 1920s–1930s VLADIMIR BOYKO Centre for Regional Studies (Russia and the East) Barnaul State Pedagogical University Barnaul, Russia ABSTRACT ThispaperaimstooutlinetheoriginsandmaindimensionsoftheChineseimmi- grant communities which were established in
The tales reveal a set of strong ambivalences about the magical powers of kings, priests and sorcerers, and about social strains within villages and families. These narratives were related in the daily settings of home and coffee shop and also in the spectacular dance-dramas of the time.