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the D2D3 expansion fragments of 28S rRNA gene, and tested alternative hypotheses of nematode evolution and classifications previously proposed based on morphology. Materials and methods Nematode samples Nematode isolates were collected from different plants and localities in Iran

In: Nematology

; Nguyen et al ., 2004; Decraemer & Hunt, 2013; Ghaderi et al ., 2014, 2016). In recent years, intra- and interspecific variation in sequences of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA and ITS genes, as well as phylogeny, have been studied to examine the relationships among paratylenchids, especially in

In: Nematology

, and 1813F (5′-CKGCGYKAGAGGTGAAAT-3′) and 2646R (5′-GCTACCTTGTTACGACTTTT-3′) for the second fragment (Holterman et al ., 2006). The D2-D3 segment of 28S rRNA was amplified using the forward D2A (5′-ACAAGTACCGTGAGGGAAAGT-3′) and reverse D3B (5′-TCGGAAGGAACCAGCTACTA-3′) primers (Nunn, 1992). Each 30  μ

In: Nematology

. and provide D2-D3 of 28S rRNA sequence from C. avicenniae . Materials and methods Nematode sampling and morphological identification Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of grass and pear ( Pyrus communis L.) in West Azerbaijan and Zanjan provinces, northwestern Iran

In: Nematology

microscopy images and morphometrics of the J2, molecular data of D2-D3 of 28S rRNA, partial 18S rRNA and COI of mtDNA sequences, and updated phylogenetic relationships of this species based on the D2-D3 and COI sequence alignments. Materials and methods Sample collection and morphological

In: Nematology

, using part of the 28S rRNA gene as a genetic marker. The main goals were to complement the previous phylogenies – reconstructed by mtDNA alone (Fratini et al., 2018) or in combination with nuclear protein coding genes (Ip et al., 2015) – and to investigate, if the conserved 28S rDNA may support the

In: Crustaceana

reconstructed based on the analyses of partial sequences from the 28S rRNA gene (Curran & Driver, 1994; Nguyen et al ., 2004, 2008; Edgington et al ., 2011; Li et al ., 2012; Malan et al ., 2014), partial 18S rRNA gene (Liu et al ., 1997), ITS1 of rRNA gene (Adams et al ., 1998; Phan et al ., 2003), ITS1

In: Nematology

the GenBank database. The present study aims to redescribe a population of the species that includes both females and males and to reconstruct its phylogenetic relationships with other species of the genus as inferred using partial sequences of the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA and the 18S rRNA

In: Nematology

the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene; the forward TW81 (5′-GTT TCC GTA GGT GAA CCT GC-3′) and the reverse AB28 (5′-ATA TGC TTA AGT TCA GCG GGT-3′) primers (Tanha Maafi et al ., 2003 ) or the forward F194 (5′-CGT AAC AAG GTA GCT GTA G-3′) and the reverse 26S (5′-TTT CAC TCG CCG TTA CTA AGG-3

In: Nematology

using the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA, ITS rRNA, 18S rRNA and partial COI gene sequences; and iii ) to study the phylogenetic relationships of the new species with related taxa. Materials and methods Nematode samples and morphological observations Specimens of a new

In: Nematology