This paper examines the level of conceptual complexity illustrated by members of the Kenyan parliament following the end of civil conflict that had been precipitated by the contested December 2007 presidential and parliamentary elections. Who is more likely to engage in rhetoric that is more complex (and hence more reconciliatory) the opposition or the governing party?: Ministers or other MPs? Using machine coded text analysis of parliamentary debates over the proposed reconciliation government in March 2008, we find that complexity scores were lower among representatives of the parties that were the principal protagonists in the civil conflict and lower among ministers of government than were representatives from other parties or non ministerial members of parliament.
schedule covers Africanelections for the period 1989-2001, as provided by the Africa Institute of South Africa The multiparty systems of Algeria, Angola, Cote d'lvoire, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and Niger that survived military disruption in the 1990s are included in the table. Not listed are the
monitored by independent NGOs, whose general findings are positive with room for improvements.“South Africa: Election Observation Reports and Statements,” (Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa). https://eisa.org.za/epp-south-africa.php. The Bill of Rights further specifies how citizenship
offensive against Cairo bringing along the Germans. The South African military withdrew from North Africa following the critical Second Battle of El Alamein in late 1942, which helped Smuts win the 1943 South Africanelection and keep the country in the war. Katz ends his book with the subsequent creation
Nations monitoring of the South Africanelections from the international community, all major South African political parties and the South African public in general. The major focus of United Nations involvement in elections has been to monitor the elections in order to ensure that they are free and fair
the TRC,” in After Mandela: The 1999 South AfricanElections (ed. J. E. Spence; London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1999 ), 60–62.
4 T. S. Maluleke, “Truth, National Unity and Reconciliation in South Africa: Aspects of the emerging agenda,” in An African Challenge to the
): Database of Political Institutions: System: Parliamentary (1), Presidential (and assembly elected presidents) (0).
20) Nordsiek, Wolfram ( 2010 ): Parties and Elections. The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe; AfricanElection Database http
): 477-98. 10 Interview with Nemata Majeks-Walker, Founder and first President of the 50/50 Group, Freetown, April 2010. 11 Julie Ballington, Political Parties, “Gender Equality and Elections in South Africa,” in One Woman, One Vote: The Gender Politics of South AfricanElection , ed. Glenda Fick et al