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Jennifer J. Marlow and Lauren E. Sancken

Relocation requires reimagining the role of law and policy in assisting community relocation planning in predisaster contexts. For decades, the 467-person Inupiaq whaling village of Kivalina, Alaska, has navigated agency-led relocation processes and sought legal remedies to pursue relocation as a comprehensive means of addressing overcrowding, inadequate water and sanitation services, and the impacts of climate change on permafrost and coastline stability. Despite Kivalina’s highly successful efforts to create media and public awareness of its situation, no actionable relocation plans have emerged out of Kivalina’s formal engagement with traditional legal and policy avenues. This article examines three issues: (1) Kivalina’s current efforts to relocate within the context of its colonial past; (2) the limited us federal and state regulatory mechanisms available to Kivalina and other displaced Arctic tribal communities; and (3) ad hoc models that embrace the complexity of self-reliant relocation in predisaster contexts.

Kate Darling

. , Apology for the Inuit High Arctic Relocation (18 August 2010 ) http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ai/mr/spch/2010/aug18-eng.asp Education Act , S.Nu. 2008, c 15. Foy J. , ed., Digest No. 11: Ensuring the Rights of Indigenous Children ( Florence : UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre , October 2003 ) 1

Jarich Oosten and Frédéric Laugrand

- wide. 10 Th is document was signed by Inuit religious leaders such as Arreak, Deer, Tertiluk, Dewar, and Arnaquq. Clearly Pentecostal and Evan- gelical movements considered themselves as representing the First Nations. In November 2003, the launch of the fi lm Broken Promises — the High Arctic