Although the People’s Republic of China (hereafter China) lacks territory and waters above the Arctic Circle (ca. 66°33′ N), it has become an increasingly influential actor in Arctic affairs during the past decade. In 2007, China started to take part in the work of the Arctic Council, the key

In: Chinese Policy and Presence in the Arctic

3.1 Introduction This chapter elaborates on China’s evolving strategy in the Arctic. In January 2018, the Chinese government published its first-ever Arctic policy. For many, the overarching and ambitious nature of the country’s Arctic policy was a surprise. China emphasized its role in global and

In: Chinese Policy and Presence in the Arctic

decade, the Arctic has also become incorporated into China’s increasingly confident global diplomacy. However, there are some noteworthy distinctive characteristics of China’s Arctic engagement that differentiate it from the country’s foreign policies in other parts of the world, especially given the

In: Chinese Policy and Presence in the Arctic

such as Canada. In this article, I explore the questions: Why are the Arctic states acting like a club in Arctic politics, and how do internal hierarchies influence how clubs make decisions? I argue that regions have a propensity to form clubs due to the ease of defining a club around a wealth of

In: Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations
Author: Olya Gayazova

Introduction The new Arctic Council observer guidelines specify that in determining the “suitability of an applicant for observer status the Council will . . . take into account the extent to which observers . . . recognize Arctic States’ sovereignty, sovereign rights and jurisdiction in the

In: The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law

4.1 Introduction As for a non-Arctic state, scientific activities have been the foundation for China’s polar engagement and, according to China’s White Paper on the Arctic, exploring and understanding the Arctic “serves as the priority and focus for China in its Arctic activities” ( prc State

In: Chinese Policy and Presence in the Arctic

Introduction In 2012 the European Union ( eu ) 1 published its latest Arctic policy, which indicates that “the eu should step up its engagement with its Arctic partners to jointly meet the challenge of safeguarding the environment while ensuring the sustainable development of the Arctic

In: The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law

Introduction Although there is no fishing activity within the Central Arctic Ocean at present, commercial fishing activity does occur in the surrounding areas. Specifically, large-scale commercial fisheries are taking place in the Barents and Bering Seas, but the fisheries in the Arctic Ocean

In: The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law
Scholarly monographs on the iconography of Eskimo and Arctic religions.

I Introduction There is a certain ambiguity about Arctic shipping and navigation. The Arctic Ocean at present contains no major trading routes and therefore commercial shipping is significantly less than elsewhere. Nevertheless, the Arctic Ocean continues to grow in prominence. While the Arctic

In: Brill Research Perspectives in the Law of the Sea