Ahmed Agayev, better known as Ahmet Ağaoğlu (1869-1939), has been a prominent preacher of Turkism and one of the founding fathers of the so-called Azerbaijani identity, having played also a significant role in the formation of Pan-Turkism. Ağaoğlu’s involvement in Pan-Turkist circles in the Ottoman Empire and then in the nationalist movement in Kemalist Turkey partly overshadowed some details of his earlier life. This paper examines one of the lesser-known episodes in his biography—his participation in the activities of the Iranian revolutionaries in Istanbul and his collaboration with their Persian organ, Sorush (Sorūš) in 1909-1910 in Istanbul. Ironically, positioning himself in his Persian writings in Sorush as an avid follower of Iranian nationalism, Ağaoğlu began soon to propound in the Ottoman press the idea of “the Turks of Iran”, actively promoting Turkism and Pan-Turkist views on the ethnic background of the South Caucasian Muslims and the population of the northwestern areas of Iran. Ahmet Ağaoğlu’s writings in Istanbul in 1909 and 1910 shed some light on the genesis of a modern ethnic identity, which was later labelled as “Azerbaijani”.
-linguistic identity. Still, to some ears it may sound as a rough equivalent of "the Dutch Germans." The emphasis on Turkishness as the basic atribute of Azerbaijaniidentity is an ac- cepted view but more so among the Azerbaijani elites. Among the population at large, espe- cially in rural areas, where the Islamic
self-identifica- tion as Avars, who have lost the language of their ancestors (p. 15). Since the basic element of contemporary Azerbaijaniidentity is consid- ered to be the language of the population, the official publications in the Republic of Azerbaijan recognise the presence of only Azerbaijanis
the former USSR, Iran, China, and Guatemala. The book is worth buying for Young's opening historical and theoretical account of cul- tural pluralism alone. Add to this the exceptional quality of Mark Beissenger's autopsy of the former USSR, an excellent article by Nader Entessar on Azeriidentity
rethinking of conventional approaches. The discussion does not intend to present readers with a set of conclusions, but to provide suggestions for further critical research. Keywords Karabakh; Armenia; Azerbaijan; identity conﬂict What makes the Armenian-Azerbaijani conﬂict 1 intractable? Why did 15 years of
, AzerbaijaniIdentity, Armenian-Turkish Relations, Turkism, Turk- ishness I NTRODUCTION In the establishment of the Turkish Republic’s national identity, “Turk- ishness”, along with Anatolia as the place where it was built and repro- duced, plays a crucial role. History serves as one of the foundational
[ing] everything indigenous and national, to their own traditions and customs, to their own identity and uniqueness in favor of Western values.
The realities of the contemporary world and their underlying processes are changing Azerbaijaniidentity. But it should be noted that in contrast to the United States
consol- idate the nation. Though such aspirations existed among the national elite, a common language was the only common feature binding together Northern and Southern Azerbaijanis. In addition, many Azerbaijanis in Iran, while pos- sessing clear Azerbaijaniidentity, associated themselves with the
ideological rhetoric through references to Aliyev’s utterances on national traditions, religion, and values. In his speeches, usually delivered at local mosques or sacred places, Aliyev often stressed that Islam is an essential element of Azerbaijaniidentity, and further that even in Soviet times, he had
, an extinct population. Parallel to this assump- tion, the same historiography has also sustained that a portion of the same Caucasian Albanians were forcibly armenised in the course of cen- turies. The result is the equalisation of the Azerbaijaniidentity and the Albanian-Caucasian one, or at least