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the mold of traditionalist (patron-client) relations, elites act as the agents of de-modernization and re-tradi- tionalization. Organized on the principles of rational bureaucracy, elites are able to ensure modernization. Looking at the evolution of the CIS countries from this angle, the author

In: Comparative Sociology
Author: Elisabeth Kaske

predicament of their clerical position. While legal venality contributed to general corruption in the Qing bureaucracy, it also leveled to a certain extent the differences between a professional yet suppressed class of bureaucrats and their amateurish yet socially esteemed scholar-literati superiors. Résumé

In: T'oung Pao

[German version] The term bureaucracy has no roots in the political terminology of antiquity, but is a modern French-Greek hybrid formation (Old Fr. ‘bure’, ‘burrel’ from Lat. burra). Bureaucracy refers -- also in a critical sense -- to specific organizational structures of modern states [1]. As an

In: Brill's New Pauly Online
Author: Karpenko

V.Z. Beloye delo v Rossii, 1917–1918: Formirovaniye i evolutsiya politicheskih structur Belogo dvizheniya v Rossii. M., 2008; and others. Th e White Dictatorships’ Bureaucracy in the South of Russia: Social Structure, Living Conditions, and Performance (1918-1920) S. Karpenko Russian State

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review