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Linda Fedigan and Mackenzie Bergstrom

March 2010) Summary Research on Old World primates provided the foundation for understanding competitive strategies resulting from social and ecological pressures. The neotropical primate, Cebus ca- pucinus shares many social patterns with Old World cercopithecines (e.g., female philopatry, male

D. Mainardi, L. Re, P. Palanza, S. Parmigiani and P.F. Brain


Margaret Crofoot

investigate the ecological context of intergroup agonism (IGA) in white-faced capuchins ( Cebus capucinus ) to elucidate the roles of feeding and mating competition, explicitly ex- ploring both long- and short-term competitive strategies. Short-term mating competition is not a major function of IGA in C

Annie Zuiderwijk

Courtship display characteristics are described and compared for the newts Triturus cristatus and T. marmoratus and patterns of male competitive behaviour are recognized. In interpreting the data, the operational sex ratio has to be taken into account, which was highly biased towards males in both species, more in T. marmoratus than in T. cristatus.

When sexual active, males of cristatus had more encounters than males of marmoratus, whereas the latter spent more time residing mating places. The male’s display towards a female differed in time structure, variability and in behaviour characteristics. T. marmoratus display follows a fixed pattern; males succeeded better in restraining a female than males cristatus did. Courting males cristatus allowed other males to intrude. Malemale encounters were longer and playful in T. cristatus, more violent in T. marmoratus. Comparison with data from the literature indicates that courtship of T. marmoratus has more features in common with that of T. vittatus than it has with the courtship of T. cristatus.

It is suggested that in the course of evolution T. marmoratus adopted a strategy of Sexual Defense by means of territoriality and overt fighting, whereas T. cristatus in contrast adopted a strategy of Sexual Interference by female mimicry. Male display components that played a major role during the adaptation of competitive strategy are identified as the “whip” behaviour in T. marmoratus and the “rocking” behaviour in T. cristatus.


We compared intra- and interspecific competitive responses of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, from four populations originating in distinct environments in Israel. The environments ranged along two parallel gradients of rainfall amount and predictability, from low (desert) to moderate (semi-steppe batha) to high (Mediterranean grassland and mountain, the latter also experiencing frost stress). The target barley plants grew under one of five densities (0, 4, 8, 16, and 32 surrounding plants per bucket) of either barley from the same population or oats (Avena sterilis) from a neutral population. The traits examined included estimates of fitness, reproductive traits, and resource allocation.

The effect of intraspecific competition was stronger than interspecific competition at a high increment of neighbor density (from 4 to 32 neighbors). There was no difference in interspecific competitive responses of plants originating in the four environments at any neighbor density increments, but intraspecific competitive responses of the four ecotypes consistently differed at low competitive intensity (4 neighbors). The superior competitors were the plants originating from Mediterranean grassland, the most favorable with respect to rainfall and abiotic stress (i.e., drought or frost) environment. The plants from the mountain environment, which is highly productive and predictable with respect to rainfall but experiences severe frost stress, were the poorest competitors. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that there is no relationship between competitive ability and environmental favorability. High competitive ability appears to be a distinct property of plants living in favorable environments (i.e., productive, predictable, and without abiotic stress) corresponding to the "competitive" strategy of the C-S-R model. However, in less productive and/or predictable environments, or under conditions of severe abiotic stress, plant features other than ability to tolerate low water or nutrient levels may be more important, with reduced competitive ability as a trade-off.

Daniel C. Ullucci

work of a religious expert. (As a caveat it is important to point out that not all religious experts are the same. Here we are speaking of a particular kind of religious expert, one who deals in texts and textual production. These religious experts are employing a specific competitive strategy within a

Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry

A study of Anzû, Enūma Eliš, and Erra and Išum


Selena Wisnom

In Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry Selena Wisnom offers an in-depth literary study of three poems central to Babylonian culture: Anzû, Enūma eliš, and Erra and Išum. Fundamentally interconnected, each poem strives to out-do its predecessors and competes to establish its protagonist, its ideals, and its poetics as superior to those that came before them.

The first of its kind in Assyriology, Weapons of Words explores the rich nuances of these poems by unravelling complex networks of allusion. Through a sophisticated analysis of literary techniques, Selena Wisnom traces developments in the Akkadian poetic tradition and demonstrates that intertextual readings are essential for a deeper understanding of Mesopotamian literature.

competitive strategies, including financial, material or service incentives given either directly to schools or to anyone influencing book pur- chases. Deep discounts, liberal credit terms, “grease” money for decision-makers and cash donations to school activities and projects have been widespread. Material

John T. Omohundro

situation of opportunity. Chinese immigrants brought with them to the Philippines a competitive strategy that was a part of their sojourning practice when they were free of the restraints of their home areas. The competitive strategy of this sojourning practice focused on rapid utilization of resources

Weigelt and Jehn

team effective. Notes 1. This article is based on a chapter, “Game Theory and Competitive Strategy,” in Wharton on Dynamic Competitive Strategies , edited by George Day and David Reibstein. 2. The convention is to list the payoffs to the row player (Firm B) first, followed by the payoffs of the column