[German version] (Καδούσιοι; Kadoúsioi, Lat. Cadusii). Iranian group of nomadic tribes in the mountains between Media and the coast of the Caspian Sea, neighbours of the Anariaci and Albani (Str. 11,8,1). The Pantimati and Dareitai (Hdt. 3,92) possibly also belonged to the C. The Achaemenids [2
According to some classical authors, the region south-west of the Caspian Sea was inhabited by the large tribe of the Cadusians (Greek Καδουσιοι, Latin Cadusii). During the Achaemenid Period, several armed conflicts between the Imperial Persian forces and the warlike Cadusians occurred. Of particular importance is the disastrous defeat of Artaxerxes II in 380 B.C. From the archaeological point of view, little has been known about the material culture of the Achaemenid Period (Iron Age IV) in Talesh and Gilan. Until recently, only a few burial contexts from the South of Gilan could be dated to the period between the 6th and 4th centuries B.C. However, during the last two decades, Iranian archaeologists excavated numerous Bronze and Iron Age graveyards in the Talesh Region. A number of burial contexts at sites, such as Maryan, Mianroud or Vaske can securely be dated to the Achaemenid Period. With this new material basis, it was possible to subdivide the Iron Age IV into different subsequent phases. Furthermore, it is likely that the material culture described in this article could be at least partially attributed to the Cadusians.
Khinalug, a minority language spoken by some 1,500 people mainly in the village of Khinalug in the Quba district of Azerbaijan Republic, is generally regarded as the most divergent East Caucasian language. Its exact genealogical place within the group of around 30 East Caucasian languages has been debated since long. Still, at least some of the relevant contributions to this debate, ground their arguments in a rather small piece of evidence, usually taken from a handful of assumed lexical correspondences and typological analogies. In the present paper, I discuss some methodological problems related to the enterprise of determining the place of Khinalug among the East Caucasian languages, addressing both selected lexical and grammatical features. I also include some sociolinguistic features that are crucial to the discussion. As an alternative to the current hypotheses, I suggest to consider the possibility that Khinalug is not an East Caucasian language from a genetic point of view, but a non-East Caucasian language that has become “Caucasianised” over times. In the first part of my paper I will focus on some general issues and on the lexicon.
[English version] (Καδούσιοι, lat. Cadusii). Iran. Nomadenstammesverband im Gebirgsland zw. Media und der Küste des Kaspischen Meers, Nachbarn der Anariakoi und Albanoi (Strab. 11,8,1), evtl. gehörten die Pantimatoi und Dareitai (Hdt. 3,92) zu ihnen. Die Achaimenidai  mußten mehrfach Aufstände
[German version] (Ἄμαρδοι; Ámardoi). Iranian town in Media on the south bank of the Caspian Sea, west of the Hyrcani ( Hyrcania), east of the Cadusii (Str. 11,6,1; 8,1; 8; Plin. HN 6,36; Mela 3,39; 42 - joint source is Eratosthenes). Not likely to be identical with the A. in the Persian armed
Caspian Sea. Some ancient authors (Plin. HN 6,48; Ptol. 6,2,5) identified them with the Cadusii. The tribe's name lives on in the region's (or rather the Sassanid province's) modern name of Gı̄lān (middle P...
geographers have formed it, the whole circuit just described is given this form. In the northern direction, to the Caspian Gates it borders on the Cadusii, on many tribes of the Scythians, and on the Arimaspse, wild, one-eyed men. On the west it touches Armenia, Niphates, the Asiatic Albani, the Red Sea, and