.A. Ilyasov, M.N. Kosarev and F.G. Yumaguzhin (2014) found that under conditions of bee subspecies mass hybridization and loss of the dark forest gene pool (CentralEuropean) bees in most European countries, that Russia has a significant reserve of purebred populations of the dark forest bee Apis mellifera
The spatial and ecological characteristics of two hybrid zones of amphibians are described. In two species of fire-bellied toads (genus Bombina) in central Europe, the location of the hybrid zone between them is determined by the parameters altitude and relief. In western France, the distribution of two hybridizing species of newts (genus Triturus) is described by the parameters relief and forestation. The toads fit the gradient model of hybrid zone structure, whereas the newts fit the mosaic model of hybrid zone structure. However, when the spatial scale of observation is varied, the distinction between the models fades and a continuum might exist between them.
Bombino bombirla and Bombina variegata meet in a narrow hybrid zone which runs for several thousand km across Central Europe at a transition between mountains and lowlands. Allozymes and morphology (as well as mtDNA and mating calls studied only near Cracow) change in parallel over 5–10 km. The central step, in which associations among parental alleles of unlinked allozyme loci are highest, is flanked by long tails of introgressing alleles. Selection against hybrids acts on correlated blocks of genes at the center and maintains steep clines. Two transects in southern Poland show striking similarities and provide a rare opportunity to quantify predictions of the strength of selection against hybrids, the number of genes under selection, and the extent of gene flow between the two species. Lowered fitness of hybrids and contrasting habitats at either side of the zone which favor alternative sets of adaptations confine introgression to a narrow zone.
The seasonal period of nocturnal migration in southern Israel is shorter than in central Israel and much shorter than in central Europe. Long-distance migrants arrive later because the average distance from the breeding grounds is larger and many of them stop to refuel before reaching the dry southern parts of the Mediterranean. Most short-distance migrants do not cross southern Israel at all, thus reducing early spring and late autumn migration. The night—to-night variation in the density of migration is less pronounced than in central Europe due to smaller variation in meteorological factors. There is a clear gap between nocturnal and diurnal migration, practically no passerine migrants continuing migration at dawn and dusk. The steeper increase in migration after dusk in the Negev Highlands compared to the Arava Valley is explained by better resting areas in the Highlands. The schedule of passage throughout the night shows a faster decline after midnight in autumn than in spring, indicating abbreviation of nocturnal flights when birds migrate towards the desert and prolongation when approaching more fertile areas. High temperatures do not seem to abbreviate nocturnal flights. The altitudinal distribution of migration when mountain ranges are crossed is influenced mainly by atmospheric conditions and less so by the relief itself. The trade wind conditions promote migration below windshear (1200–2000 m above sea level) in autumn, and flights above this limit in spring. More than 50% of the altitudinal distribution of nocturnal migration could be predicted by the change in the tailwind component between height intervals of 200 m.
Gnaphosid spiders from Israel of the genera Setaphis, Trachyzelotes, the species-rich Zelotes, and Drassyllus have been revised. Thirty-six species, more than in the whole of Central Europe, are recognized, including 16 species new to science and six that have never before been recorded from this region. All types and pertinent non-type material deposited in a great number of European collections have been re-examined, and the systematics, ecology, and the Zoogeographie distribution of all taxa treated are discussed. Many species have never been adequately described, and detailed illustrations of diagnostic characters along with updated records are provided for each species. The following new synonyms are defined: Zelotes longestylus (Caporiacco, 1936), Z. caporiaccoi Roewer, 1951, and Z. stylus Di Franco, 1992 = Setaphis fuscipes (Simon, 1885); Zelotes costatus Denis, 1952 = Trachyzelotes bardiae (Caporiacco, 1928) new combination; Zelotes inauratus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872) and Z. tristiculus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1874) = Zelotes laetus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872); Zelotes picinus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872), Z. scutatus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872), Z. curinus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1874), Setaphis bicolor Simon, 1908, Drassodes cofiniotes Roewer, 1928, and Zelotes simplex Denis, 1937 = Zelotes scrutatus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872) new combination; Zelotes pyrethri (Strand, 1915) = Zelotes tenuis (L. Koch, 1866); Scotophaeus blepharotrichus Strand, 1915 = Zelotes rusticus (L. Koch, 1872); Drassodes citipes Simon, 1893 and D. lutorius Tullgren, 1910, in part: fig.15b = Zelotes infumatus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872) new combination. The new species described are: Zelotes xerophilus, Z. eremus, Z. galuni, Z. meronensis, Z. bashaneus, Z. parascrutatus, Z. zin, Z. shaked, Z. bokerensis, Z. hierosolymitanus, Z. solstitialis, Z. incisupalpis, Z. aradensis, Z. helvoloides, Z. sumchi, and Drassyllus jubatopalpis.
-Verlag Berlin 1990 269 280
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Pek�r, S., Kr�l, J., Lubin, Y. Natural history and karyotype of some ant-eating zodariid spiders (Araneae: Zodariidae) from Israel. J. Arachnol., in press