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This paper examines the effect of Confucian cultural value on the relationship between multimarket contact and two dimensions of firm performance, i.e., firms’ innovation and profitability. It is hypothesized that firms with a high level of multimarket contact are more likely to show mutual forbearance towards their competitors, which in turn influences their innovative behavior and financial performance. Taking into account the possible moderating effects of Confucian cultural value, we also hypothesize that the effect of multimarket contact is more pronounced among firms from the Confucian culture. In other words, it is argued that firms from the Confucian culture are more likely to innovate and obtain better financial performance. Empirical tests were conducted after the hypotheses, and the findings support the arguments on multimarket contacts and mutual forbearance hypotheses. Through facilitating tacit collusion, multimarket contact does seem to help create superior economic performance.

In: Frontiers of Business Research in China

198 Book Reviews / T’oung Pao 94 (2008) 151-206 Confucian Cultures of Authority . By Peter D. Hershock and Roger T. Ames (eds.), Albany, State University of New York Press, 2006. xvii + 258 pp. This edited volume is a collection of essays united by the common theme of “authority,” which the

In: T'oung Pao

-1644) dynasties chose to employ defensive, accommodationist, or offensive grand strategies. He considers these two dynastic eras fitting for his analysis because during both periods Confucian culture was deeply embedded in state and society, and because these two periods faced different strategic environments

In: Journal of Chinese Military History

broad strand of opinion that accepts the existence of such an influence with respect to China and other East Asian countries, which notwithstanding their differences, is given the epithet of the Confucian Culture Area. We shall refer to several authors who take this stance as well as examining the core

In: African and Asian Studies
In: Confucianism and Spiritual Traditions in Modern China and Beyond
The fifteen studies presented in Confucian Academies in East Asia offer insight into the history and legacy of these unique institutions of knowledge and education. The contributions analyze origins, spread and development of Confucian academies across China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan from multiple perspectives. This edited volume is one of the first attempts to understand Confucian academies as a complex transnational, intellectual, and cultural phenomena that played an essential role in various areas of East Asian education, philosophy, religious practice, local economy, print industry, and even archery. The broad chronological range of essays allows it to demonstrate the role of Confucian academies as highly adaptable and active agents of cultural and intellectual change since the eighth century until today. An indispensable handbook for studies of Confucian culture and institutions since the eighth century until the present.

Contributors are: Chien Iching, Chung Soon-woo, Deng Hongbo, Martin Gehlmann, Vladimír Glomb, Lan Jun, Lee Byoung-Hoon, Eun-Jeung Lee, Thomas H.C. Lee, Margaret Dorothea Mehl, Steven B. Miles, Hoyt Cleveland Tillman, Nguyễn Tuấn-Cường, Linda Walton and Minamizawa Yoshihiko.

The relationship of brother and brother is one of the Five Great Relationships in Confucian culture, yet it has been relatively little studied. The lives of the brothers Wang Shizhen and Wang Shimao in the sixteenth century provide a case study of how two male siblings shared a family heritage of education and political engagement, and pursued parallel careers in public life, yet followed distinct paths in both their intellectual interest and political engagements. The nature of their personal relationship also serves to illustrate how the fraternal bond both structured their respective careers and provided emotional support in times of peril and loss.

In: Ming Qing Yanjiu

What is the relationship between Chinese familism and the modern economic organization? Can a rational, contractual relationship grow out of Chinese familism that widely exists in Chinese family businesses? This paper holds that Chinese familism can nurture a rational and contractual relationship. However, such a relationship is not an extremely instrumental rationality of Logocentrism, but a zhongyong rationality characteristic of Confucian culture essence. This paper verifies empirically for the first time the existence of zhongyong rationality by analyzing family entrepreneurs’ governance choices. The results reveal that under the guidance of zhongyong rationality, entrepreneurs in Chinese family firms lay more emphasis on restraints than on efficiency, balance the interests among the management, the firm and the owning family, and maintain equilibrium between the insiders and outsiders. This research also finds that a shift from instrumental rationality to zhongyong rationality can provide more satisfactory and indigenous explanations to some phenomena widely in existence among Chinese family firms, as compared with corresponding Western theories.

In: Frontiers of Business Research in China

The reason why justice and harmony are the most-prized values and the highest aims of human beings is that these qualities are the foundation which makes possible the realization of all other positive goals. Interpersonal conflicts and conflicts between individuals and the society lead to social, cultural, and moral crises. Confucian culture argues that moral reason is only possessed by human beings, and that this is what can make human existence harmonious and rational. Harmony creates power, and power can defeat impediments. As a result, physical qualities are humanized, and moral qualities increase. Goodness promotes the establishment of mutually beneficial systems and procedural justice in a society. Therefore, Chinese traditional culture provides a method for resolving contemporary social conflicts and crises, including accumulating goodness to increase virtue, constructing social integrity and harmonious righteousness, and the building up of a just society.

In: Frontiers of Philosophy in China


This article presents a study of a unique kind of commemorative stele erected by Qing emperors in the Imperial Academy—the symbol of Confucian culture and civilian education—and also replicated in schools across China. Before the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), Chinese rulers did not install military monuments at the academy. In this article, I argue that the Qing emperors erected war monuments in the Imperial Academy to justify and commemorate their wars of conquest. As the emperors required the stelae to be replicated at some of the local schools across China, they became widely accessible to the public. However, the Qing emperors, particularly the Qianlong emperor, were concerned that the stelae could become symbols of abusive warfare, thereby undermining their claims to rule in accordance with Confucian ideals. For this reason, they carefully selected the campaigns to commemorate and ensured that inscriptions on the stelae explained that they had no choice but to embark on war in these instances.

In: Journal of Chinese Military History