Silicified woods from the lower Miocene Yanagida Formation were collected from two sites, Mawaki and Uchiura, in the northeastern Noto Peninsula, central Japan. Among 80 specimens, 15 species representing 13 families were identified, including six new species: Torreya mioxyla (Taxaceae), Castanopsis uchiuraensis (Fagaceae), Camellia japonoxyla (Theaceae), Stewartia notoensis (Theaceae), Distylium chiharu-hirayae (Hamamelidaceae) and Aesculus mioxyla (Hippocastanaceae). The fossil wood floras from these two sites contain evergreen and deciduous dicotyledons and have a similar composition. These floras are compared to the fossil wood flora from Monzen and to the Daijima-type compression fossil flora. The composition of the fossil wood floras of Mawaki and Uchiura suggests they represent a mixed mesic forest of conifers, deciduous dicotyledons and evergreen dicotyledons.
Eighty-two silicified fossil woods were collected from Miocene formations on the western coast of the Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Twenty-two taxa (5 conifers and 17 dicotyledons) were identified. Five new species (Chamaecyparis parathyoides, Pterocarya parvipora, Populus soyaensis, Schima protowallichii, Lagerstroemia odaniense) and two species not previously known from the Miocene of Yamagata are described. This brings the number of fossil wood taxa from the Miocene of Yamagata to 39. Warm temperate elements such as Keteleeria, Liquidambar, Distylium and Lagerstroemia were found in the formations studied. The fossil wood assemblages from four Miocene formations (except Onisakatoge Formation from which only one sample was collected) suggest that the woody flora changed gradually during the Miocene from a mixture of cool and warm temperate elements to a warm temperate assemblage. These changes agree well with the vegetation changes during the Miocene in Japan; from the Aniai type to the Daijima-type.
Two species of fossil angiosperm wood are described from the Oligocene of northwestern Bohemia in the Czech Republic. One specimen from Kadan–Zadní vrch Hill is identified as Cercidiphylloxylon kadanense Prakash et al. Because of its superior preservation, the specimen is designated as an epitype to the original holotype specimen of the species and genus. Cercidiphylloxylon kadanense is known only from the locality of Kadan–Zadní vrch Hill, and it represents the oldest fossil wood of true Cercidiphyllum Sieb. & Zucc. Three other wood specimens from Zichov are attributed to Liquidambaroxylon speciosum Felix. Modern wood of some species of Cercidiphyllum Sieb. & Zucc., Liquidambar L., Altingia Noronha, Corylopsis Sieb. & Zucc., Distylium Sieb. & Zucc., and Hamamelis L. was examined to determine how to distinguish the wood of Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae) from similar woods of Hamamelidaceae. The number of bars in the scalariform perforation plates of the vessels is about 40 in Cercidiphyllum, and about 20 in the Hamamelidaceae. Rays are variable, even at intra-specific level, and are not suitable for distinguishing these woods. These criteria were found to be useful in evaluating affinities of the fossil woods.
Wood anatomical data for all three extant genera of the Altingiaceae and 23 of the 27 extant genera of the Hamamelidaceae were compiled in an effort to find features distinctive to genera, tribes, or subfamilies within these families. All genera studied have diffuse porous wood (except Corylopsis which tends to be semi-ring porous), vessels are predominantly solitary and narrow (<100 μm, usually <50 μm) and angular in outline, vessel elements are long (>800 μm) with scalariform perforation plates with average bar numbers of 9–44, intervessel pits are mainly scalariform to opposite, vessel-ray parenchyma pits are scalariform with slightly reduced borders and usually are in the square to upright marginal ray parenchyma cells, rays are heterocellular and narrow, usually 1–3-seriate. Although the wood anatomy of both families is relatively homogeneous, it is possible to key out many genera using a combination of qualitative (presence/absence and location of helical thickenings in vessel elements and fibers, crystal occurrence, axial parenchyma abundance, degree of ray heterogeneity) and quantitative features (number of bars per perforation plate and ray width). Helical thickenings are present throughout the vessel elements in three genera (Loropetalum, Altingia, Semiliquidambar) and are restricted to the vessel element tails in two genera (Corylopsis, Liquidambar). Loropetalum has helical thickenings in ground tissue fibers as well. Axial parenchyma abundance varies from scarce to relatively abundant diffuse to diffuse-in-aggregates. One clade of the tribe Fothergilleae (Distylium, Distyliopsis, Sycopsis, Shaniodendron, Parrotia, Parrotiopsis) has more abundant axial parenchyma and is characterized by narrow, usually interrupted bands of apotracheal parenchyma. Nearly exclusively uniseriate rays occur in some species of Hamamelis and in Exbucklandia, Chunia, Dicoryphe, and Fothergilla. These data on extant Altingiaceae and Hamamelidaceae not only provide information relevant for systematic, phylogenetic and ecological wood anatomy and wood identification, but also give context for reviewing the fossil woods assigned to them. A new combination is proposed for the Miocene Liquidambar hisauchii (Watari) Suzuki & Watari from Japan: Altingia hisauchii (Watari) Wheeler, Baas & Lee.
.6%), ﬁ g wasp galls (7.0%), and moth galls (2.3%; Table 3 ). Only a few species are obligate cecidophages. Nola innocua Butler (Noctuidae) exclusively bores into and feeds on aphid galls on Distylium racemosum Sieb. et Zucc. (Itô and Hattori, 1982 , 1983 ; Itô, 1984 ). Some species in the family Sessidae