This paper presents the Early and Late Neolithic pottery of Ifri Oudadane, a littoral shelter in Northeast Morocco containing both Epipalaeolithic as well as Neolithic deposits. The transition is indicated by the appearance of domesticated plant and animal species, pottery and diverse changes in lithic technology. A domesticated lentil dated to 7.6 ka cal BP may mark the onset of this transitional process. With the help of 22 14C-ages the Early Neolithic deposit can be subdivided in three phases (ENA, ENB, ENC). In addition, the ENC phase contained the remains of a sporadic Late Neolithic occupation. Pottery decoration of the initial ENA phase (7.6–7.3 ka cal BP) is dominated by single Cardium impressions forming horizontal and vertical bands of impressions arranged vertical, horizontal or oblique. The successive ENB phase represents the main occupation phase between 7.1 and 6.6 ka cal BP. By means of statistical methods its assemblage, which consists of 243 vessel units, could be further subdivided (ENB1, ENB2). While ENB1 (7.1–6.9 ka cal BP) is still characterised by single Cardium impressions, the transition to ENB2 is marked by the appearance of Cardium and, later, comb impressions made using rocker stamp technique as well as a few impressions of points and spatulas, striations and modelled applications. Thus the pottery assemblage of Ifri Oudadane offers insights into the first occurrence of pottery in Mediterranean Northwest Africa and opens up the possibility for an internal classification of the Early Neolithic.
Ounjougou (Dogon Country, Mali) is now known for the discovery there of pottery dating to the first half of the 10th millennium cal BC, which is among the earliest evidence of the use of ceramics in Africa. While our understanding of early African ceramics is becoming well developed, certain other evidence associated with the first manifestations of the African Neolithic are still poorly understood, including notably the lithic industries. On the basis of technological and typological analyses of the lithic assemblage associated with the Ounjougou pottery, we will show that these materials also express profound behavioral changes within cultural groups of this period, and indeed they help clarify processes for the spread of ceramics. For these reasons lithics are extremely important for understanding this period of great cultural change and should not be neglected.
Technological and typological data collected during the analysis have been used to propose an original taphonomic approach and to test in this way the coherence of the assemblage.
Comparisons with Early Holocene industries in the Saharan zone (Temet, Tagalagal, Adrar Bous 10, etc.) provide new elements of consideration regarding the cultural context of the appearance of pottery, and enable us to propose a scenario for the adoption of technological innovations marking the beginning of the Holocene, from sub-Saharan West Africa toward the central Sahara. The lithic industries are seen as a valuable means of clarifying the cultural context and processes of the appearance and spread of pottery in this region from the first half of the 10th millennium cal BC to the middle of the 9th millennium cal BC.
Rachis fragments of cultivated (Hordeum distichon L.) along with brittle (H. spontaneum C. Koch) barley from the early eighth or late ninth millennium B.C. were found at Netiv Hagdud, Israel, proving that the domestication of this cereal was already in progress at the beginning of the aceramic Neolithic period. The large quantity of kernels and rachis segments and, especially, the numerous segments with irregular fracture provide clear evidence for domesticated barley.
Detecting seasonal movements between the Nile Valley and the adjacent desert in the Early Holocene period is a difficult task. The material production, especially the lithic industries, may have been oriented to different economic activities forwarded in these two different environments. Identifying lithic products as the output of the same cultural group moving from one area to the other may be, for this reason, quite complex. The Nabta region and the IInd Cataract offer an interesting hint on this argument. This contribution will try to highlight similarities between groups living in the Nile Valley and the Western Desert considering artefacts and faunal remains left by the inhabitants of Nabta/Kiseiba area and the Khartoum Variant sites of the Nile Valley IInd Cataract. This analysis will also make possible to advance a new chronological attribution for the Khartoum Variant cultural phase.
to our PS reconstructions. Nevertheless, we advance one step further in time, to discuss proto-West-Semitic (PWS) words as well, which already belong to the Early Bronze (see Kitchen et al. 2009). Table 1 clearly shows that as of the EarlyNeolithic, all novel materials received 3c names. It appears
home to less than a thousand residents in the earlyNeolithic, and the village seems to have a ritual and storage site appended to it near the wadi itself. This contains a plaza and tower protected from the occasional floods by a retaining wall. It is, in other words, a Neolithic village and probable
[German version] Today Alba. Town in Liguria (Plin. HN 17,25; Ptol. 3,1,45) since the earlyneolithic period; municipium with duoviri (CIL V 7605 f.), belonging to the tribus Camilia (CIL V p. 863), on the road from Pollentia to Aquae Statiella (Tab. Peut. 3,5) in the regio IX (Plin. HN 3