The present English translation reproduces the original German of Carl Brockelmann’s
Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur (GAL) as accurately as possible. In the interest of user-friendliness the following emendations have been made in the translation: Personal names are written out in full, except
ibn; Brockelmann’s transliteration of Arabic has been adapted to comply with modern standards for English-language publications; modern English equivalents are given for place names, e.g. Damascus, Cairo, Jerusalem, etc.; several erroneous dates have been corrected, and the page references to the two German editions have been retained in the margin, except in the Supplement volumes, where new references to the first two English volumes have been inserted.
‘and more’ with وزباد ‘and civet,’ based on Wuṣla ii 496, which copies it correctly. Zabād is an aromatic secretion of the perineal gland of the African civet. 65 This was also known as qāt ( Catha edulis ); the leaves are chewed, like betel ( tunbul ). It was brought from Qumr in eastAfrica
. They are bay-like leaves that are chewed, like betel ( tunbul ). They are brought from Qumr in eastAfrica (Comoros Islands). In Kanz recipe 654, it is used in an aromatic oil preparation. Most medieval sources are not quite clear on what it is. They know it as a chewed leaf with a pleasant aroma
, “Authoritative Scriptures,” 308; Amir Arjomand, The Shadow of God , 43; Amir Arjomand, “The Crisis of the Imamate,” 508–9. 79 See the notes following the Arabic text of the tawqīʿ for some of these references. 80 For example, the EastAfrican Khoja Shīʿī scholar Mullah Haji Mohammadjaffer Sheriff Dewji (d