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Benoit Mayer

Framework Article 13 of the Paris Agreement establishes an ‘enhanced transparency framework for action and support’ in order ‘to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation’. 42 This framework is to ‘be implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner

Gu Zihua, Christina Voigt and Jacob Werksman

1 Introduction and Overview The 2015 Paris Agreement will shape state behaviour through a variety of obligations and procedural arrangements. Each party must prepare, communicate, and maintain a Nationally Determined Contribution ( ndc ). An Enhanced Transparency Framework ( etf ) will track each

Yelena M. Gordeeva

arrangements; – Transparency (art. 13): “an enhanced transparency framework for action and support, with built-in flexibility which takes into account Parties’ different capacities and builds upon collective experience is established”; – Global stocktake (art. 14): in 2023 the first global

Alexander Zahar

’), although just possibly it did so indirectly, through the so-called ‘enhanced transparency framework for action and support’ ( etf ). 35 The framework’s purpose ‘is to provide clarity on support provided and received by relevant individual Parties … and, to the extent possible, to provide a full overview

Christina Voigt and Felipe Ferreira

any party to make a case for being entitled to less stringent obligations. The “enhanced transparency framework for action and support”, established by article 13, makes parties’ capacities the basis of differentiation. Different types of commitments and obligations under the agreement have distinct

Charlotte Streck, Paul Keenlyside and Moritz von Unger

. Developing countries are encouraged to provide voluntary support. Public funds will play a ‘significant role’ in finance, and developed countries must report twice a year on levels of support provided; • An enhanced transparency framework for action and support with built-in flexibility which takes

Harro van Asselt

its ‘enhanced transparency framework’. 6 Second, the agreement establishes an implementation and compliance mechanism, allowing for a compliance review . 7 Third, the ‘global stocktake’ provided for in the agreement seeks to ‘assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of [the

Charlotte Streck, Moritz von Unger and Nicole Krämer

enabler of accountability as long as it produces clear and reliable information about the performance of initiatives and institutions. 21 It is also an essential precondition for the global stocktake. Recognizing this, the Paris Agreement establishes an “enhanced transparency framework for action and

Meinhard Doelle

: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and International Energy Agency, 2017). See also Cynthia Elliott, Kelly Levin, Joe Thwaites, Kathleen Mogelgaard, and Yamide Dagnet, ‘Designing the Enhanced Transparency Framework: Reporting under the Paris Agreement’, Working Paper (Washington, DC: Project

Christopher Campbell-Duruflé

mechanism or committee, dealing with implementation concerns under the enhanced transparency framework, and not including any specific provisions on compliance. On the operation of a compliance mechanism, options submitted contemplated a single facilitative body or a two-branched body focused on enforcement