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Adam Cronin and Jeremy Field

fitness an- ticipated by high-ranking individuals account for this pattern. Keywords : inheritance queue, social rank, hierarchy, aggression, future fitness. Introduction Conflicts of interest arise in animal societies over reproductive inequality and often result in social aggression. In societies of

William Cooper Jr., Valentín Pérez-Mellado and Dror Hawlena

of fleeing and the cost staying are equal or until future fitness is maximized. Consequently, prey escape performances and current reproductive asset can affect FID. We tested effects of body condition, morphology, and whether the tail was regenerated or original on FID in the Balearic lizard

Fernando Vargas-Salinas and Adolfo Amézquita

energetically very costly and may reduce the future fitness of signallers (Wells, 2001 ; Parris, 2002 ); on the other hand, an upward shift in call frequency may reduce the effective communication distance and thereby the chances to find a mate (Marten et al., 1977 ; Parris et al., 2009 ). Hence, because

C. Smith, D.A. Fletcher, F.G. Whriskey and R.J. Wootton

their abdominal distension (ROWLAND, 1994). Operational sex ratios CLUTTON-BROCK & PARKER (1992) suggest that it is the role parental expenditure plays in determining the 'time-outs' of the males and females, rather than the cost in terms of future fitness that is of impor- tance in determining which is

Carla A. Salido and Natalin S. Vicente

., 2004; Caro et al., 2016). However, when the antipredator behaviour is not enough and the attack is imminent, the prey should decide whether to stay or to escape, because the result could be a complete interruption of its possibilities to contribute to their future fitness (Ydenberg & Dill, 1986; Cooper

Peter Slater, Hugo Rainey and Klaus Zuberbühler

that hornbills do have sophisticated cognitive abilities (Rasa, 1983; Kemp, 1995; Diamond & Bond, 2003) but, as predation acts so strongly on future fitness (Lima & Dill, 1990), it might be expected that other bird species may be capable discriminating between the alarm calls of sympatric species

Tessa K. Solomon-Lane, Madelyne C. Willis, Devaleena S. Pradhan and Matthew S. Grober

.M. Carnegie S.D. Jack K.M. ( 2008 ). Predictors of reproductive success in female white-faced capuchins ( Cebus capucinus ) . — Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 137 : 82 - 90 . Field J. Cronin A. Bridge C. ( 2006 ). Future fitness and helping in social queues . — Nature 441

Isaac Y. Ligocki, Adam R. Reddon, Jennifer K. Hellmann, Constance M. O’Connor, Susan Marsh-Rollo, Sigal Balshine and Ian M. Hamilton

prospective groups can precede this dispersal event (Bergmüller et al., 2005 ). If visitation precedes joining the group, then the response of resident group members to visitors will depend on both the current costs and benefits of the visit, and the future fitness effects of joining. When a new individual

Benjamin Geffroy, Bastien Sadoul and Agnès Bardonnet

/or aggressive individuals being predominant in upstream parts of the rivers. Localization in the watershed greatly influences growth rate, sex and future fitness of this migratory species. In the present study we first quantified how nocturnal activity outclasses diurnal activity in the European eel

Gustavo A. Fava and Juan C. Acosta

predator; these behaviours increase the escape latency and diminish the possibilities of future fitness contributions (Martín, 2002). The variations in antipredatory behaviour mechanisms exhibited by P. williamsi demonstrated a positive relationship between the functions of the required escape distance