A simple, rapid and non-destructive technique used for preparing coal and kerogen samples was adapted for use with calcified fossil wood. The technique involves embedding samples in resin, polishing their surfaces and observing them using fluorescence microscopy.
L. Witovisk, J.O. Mendonça, T.S. Barbosa, R.R.C. Ramos and M.A. Carvalho
Sung-Kook Choi, Kyungsik Kim, Eun-Kyoung Jeong, Kazuo Terada, Mitsuo Suzuki and Houhei Uematsu
Eighty-two silicified fossil woods were collected from Miocene formations on the western coast of the Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Twenty-two taxa (5 conifers and 17 dicotyledons) were identified. Five new species (Chamaecyparis parathyoides, Pterocarya parvipora, Populus soyaensis, Schima protowallichii, Lagerstroemia odaniense) and two species not previously known from the Miocene of Yamagata are described. This brings the number of fossil wood taxa from the Miocene of Yamagata to 39. Warm temperate elements such as Keteleeria, Liquidambar, Distylium and Lagerstroemia were found in the formations studied. The fossil wood assemblages from four Miocene formations (except Onisakatoge Formation from which only one sample was collected) suggest that the woody flora changed gradually during the Miocene from a mixture of cool and warm temperate elements to a warm temperate assemblage. These changes agree well with the vegetation changes during the Miocene in Japan; from the Aniai type to the Daijima-type.
Ken'ichi Takahashi and Mitsuo Suzuki
Fossil woods are abundant in the Cretaceous Yezo Group in Hokkaido, Japan, in strata of Albian to Santonian ages. From 144 dicotyledonous samples, fourteen species representing 10 genera were identified: Castanoradix cretacea gen. et sp. nov., C. biseriata gen. et sp. nov., Frutecoxylon yubariense gen. et sp. nov., Hamamelidoxylon obiraense sp. nov., Icacinoxylon kokubunii sp. nov., I. nishidae sp. nov., Magnoliaceoxylon hokkaidoense sp. nov., Nishidaxylon jezoense gen. et sp. nov., Paraphyllanthoxylon cenomaniana sp. nov., P. obiraense sp. nov., Plataninium jezoensis sp. nov., P. ogasawarae sp. nov., Sabiaceoxylon jezoense gen. et sp. nov. and Ulminium kokubunii sp. nov. All 14 species are new and four of the 10 genera are new. Five genera (lcacinoxylon, Magnoliaceoxylon, Paraphyllanthoxylon, Plataninium and Ulminium) already are known from the Cretaceous and Tertiary, one (Hamamelidoxylon) previously is known only from the Tertiary. The species distribution by age is: Albian: one species; Cenomanian: four species in four genera; Turonian: ten species in eight genera; Coniacian: six species in five genera; Santonian: eight species in seven genera. The two specimens of Icacin oxylon kokubunii from the Albian are the oldest records of dicotyledonous woods in Japan.
D.W. Woodcock, H.W. Meyer and Y. Prado
INTRODUCTION The Piedra Chamana fossils are a 39 Ma assemblage of fossil woods and leaves preserved in ashfall and volcanic flow deposits at a site in northern Peru ( Woodcock et al. 2009 ). Descriptions of 17 of the non-monocot angiosperm wood types represented in the assemblage were published
Diana K. Pérez-Lara, Carlos Castañeda-Posadas and Emilio Estrada-Ruiz
Tepexi de Rodríguez in Puebla ( Ramírez et al . 2000 ; Ramírez & Cevallos-Ferriz 2002 ). The record of anacardiaceous fossil woods is rich, with approximately 78 wood types reported worldwide ( e.g. , Awasthi 1966 ; Gregory et al . 2009 ). The majority of the records are from Cenozoic sediments of
Alexei A. Oskolski, Anna V. Stepanova, Luliang Huang and Jianhua Jin
Edited by E.A. Wheeler
, habitats (van Welzen 2016 ). Bischofia polycarpa Airy-Shaw is restricted to evergreen mountain forests of eastern and southern China. Both species are widely cultivated, and their timber is used commercially ( Li & Gilbert 2008 ). Fossil woods that resemble extant Bischofia have been extensively
Anumeha Shukla and R.C. Mehrotra
; Bhandari & Colin 1999 ; Whatley & Bajpai 2000 ; Bajpai & Whatley 2001 ; Dogra et al . 2004 ) and plant megaremains ( Guleria & Srivastava 2001 ). The fossil woods of five taxa were described systematically from near Anjar, Kutch district ( Guleria & Srivastava 2001 ). Keeping in mind the poor
D.W. Woodcock, H.W. Meyer and Y. Prado
The fossil woods and leaves of the Fossil Forest Piedra Chamana represent a diverse assemblage of plants dating to 39 Ma (late Middle Eocene). The fossils are preserved in an ashfall and overlying lahar deposits near the small village of Sexi in the northern Peruvian Andes (central Cajamarca). The assemblage includes dicot wood types and leaf morphotypes, as well as a diversity of monocot material. The ~30 dicot wood types are referred to the families Acanthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Combretaceae, Cordiaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lechythidaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Melastomataceae, Muntingiaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae. Described herein are descriptions of the first 17 wood types that have been assigned to the families Acanthaceae through Lythraceae; descriptions of the additional wood types will appear in a later paper. The paleovegetation can be characterized as lowland tropical forest with a dry aspect based on preliminary analysis of floristic affinities and wood anatomical characteristics of the fossils.
Ye-Ming Cheng, Ya-Fang Yin, R.C. Mehrotra and Cheng-Sen Li
Koelreuteria yuanmouensis sp. nov. (Sapindaceae) is described from the Pliocene fluvio-lacustrine rocks of Hutiaotan Earth Forest, Yuanmou Basin, Yunnan, China. This is the first report of fossil Koelreuteria wood from Asia. The history of the genus is reviewed. Fruits and leaves of the genus have been reported from the Paleocene onwards in Asia, North America, and Europe, with the genus becoming restricted to East Asia during the Neogene.
Rashmi Srivastava and Mitsuo Suzuki
This paper describes five species of dicotyledonous fossil wood from the lower Oligocene Tsuyazaki Formation in Tsuyazaki, Fukuoka Prefecture, northern Kyushu: Rhus palaeojavanica (Anacardiaceae), Alnus scalariforme (Betulaceae), Hamamelis prejaponica (Hamamelidaceae), Magnoliaceoxylon palaeogenica (Magnoliaceae) and Sonneratia kyushuensis (Sonneratiaceae). This brings the number of species described from the Tsuyazaki locality to 19. Among these 19 species modern equivalents of all species, except for Sonneratia, occur in temperate to subtropical forests. Sonneratia is found today in mangrove vegetation of tropical to subtropical regions. The presence of Sonneratia may suggest a warmer climate in Kyushu during the early Oligocene.