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Zub, Kowalczyk, Jedrzejewska, Theuerkauf, Schmidt and Jedrzejewski

analysed data on territory marking with urine, scats, and ground scratching by wolves ( Canis lupus ) belonging to four packs in the Bia€owie Ç za Primeval Forest, Poland. The aims were to determine: (1) seasonal variation in the marking rates, (2) signiŽ cance of various kinds of marking in territory

Joseph J. Anisko and Randall H. Sprague

interval from the beginning of a test to the first urination) ; function (urination or defecation) ; posture used; subarea in which an elimination occurred; target against which an elimination was directed (ground, fence, or barrel) ; sequence of elimination; and ground scratching. The subarea in which

Jerry A. Hogan

Research Council of Canada, APA-140. 129 IV. Correlations among behavior measures and food intake ..... 174 A. Time spent pecking and the number of pecks ..... 174 B. Weight change as a function of pecking ..... 176 C. Correlations between pecking and ground scratching ..... 177 1. Correlations over

Jerry A. Hogan and Klaus Vestergaard

scratching (SCR) or vertical wingshaking (VW) during the pecking test as a function of the training stimulus. During the pecking tests it was seen that intense pecking often led to ground scratching (on the wire floor or over the edge of the box), and in a few cases to the performance of vertical wingshaking

Jerry A. Hogan, Linda Panning and A.J. Hogan-Warburg

watch. Space was also available on the sheet to note any other behaviors that might have occurred. Behaviors measured. Behaviors of the hen that were measured included brooding, slceping, various types of preening, wingflutter/run, pecking food, ground scratching, clucking, food calling, drink- ing

Jerry A. Hogan

included all pecking except that directed to the chick's own body), pecking toes, preening, sleeping, head shaking, head scratching, bill wiping, wing flapping, leg twitching, ground scratching, drinking, defecating, "escape", shrill calling, and trill calling. Pecking toes was recorded separately since

Jennifer A. Clarke and Éloïse C. Déaux

context of play. Olfactory and visual marking Ground-scratching The individual uses front and/or back legs to strike the surface of the ground and leave a mark. Ground-marking Ground scratching behaviour that is either preceded or followed by urination. Scent-covering One individual urinates on top of

Jerry Hogan and Johan Bolhuis

function recognition mechanism [Food]. Motor mechanisms include those underlying specific behaviour patterns (such as pecking [P], ground scratching [S], walking [Wa], and possibly others), and an integrative motor mechanism that could be called foraging [For]. There is also a central hunger mechanism [H

Jaap P. Kruijt, Jerry A. Hogan and Klaus Vestergaard

behaviors. Each group was observed for 3 min, 3 times a day, for 8 days in a balanced order. Observations commenced at 1000, 1200, and 1400 hours. Behaviors noted included sleep or rest, escape, moving about while pecking and ground scratching, pecking or scratching while eating or drinking, aggres- sion

Klaus S. Vestergaard and Lone Lisborg

interpreted as an appetitive phase during which the bird examines the substrate in order to identify it as dust for dustbathing (see VESTERGAARD et al., 1993). Although it is known that intensive pecking and ground scratching are seen during the appetitive phase of dustbathing in adult domestic hens (Gallus