Chemical analysis of 31 glass beads from the sites of Mahilaka and Sandrakatsy in Madagascar, which date to approximately the 9th to 15th centuries CE, reveals the presence of two main types of glass: mineral- soda glasses and plant-ash glasses. Most of these glasses were probably made in South Asia.
The glass beads excavated at Hlamba Mlonga, a 10th to 15th century AD site in eastern Zimbabwe, are catalogued and separated into bead series based on morphology. They are compared to closely related beads that occur in archaeological contexts of the same period in the Shashe-Limpopo basin and the Zimbabwe culture area. Trade links and political consequences of trade shifts are explored. The chemical composition of selected beads, which arrived at a port (or ports) in southern Mozambique and from there were traded to Hlamba Mlonga and other sites in the interior, suggests they were manufactured in the Indian subcontinent and/or Southeast Asia.
Many tens of thousands of glass beads have been recovered from well-dated 8th to 16th century archaeological sites in southern Africa, making it possible to develop a temporally sensitive bead sequence which is made up of seven series. The series were developed based on morphological characteristics and recent chemical analysis has confirmed those results. The bead series are described in detail along with possible origins for the glass used to create them. Chemical composition of the glasses used to make the beads demonstrates that three major changes in glass chemistry occurred between the 8th and 15th centuries, suggesting the different glasses originated in geographically disparate regions and indicating that trade patterns connecting southern Africa to other Indian Ocean entities were far from static.
We report the preliminary results of chemical analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry of 156 glass beads from sites in southern Africa. Almost all of these beads can be grouped in two chemical types based on oxide compositions and glass recipes. Glasses of these types were manufactured in south and/or southeast Asia. These are the first results of a project that will analyse about 1000 beads from African archaeological sites.
Glassbeads play an important role in African societies, mostly for colorful body decoration and ornaments, but they also convey significant socio-economic, political, and ritual meanings (Ogundiran 2002). There is evidence for secondary finishing of glassbeads from several
Of all the great Western novelists of the twentieth century, the German writer Hermann Hesse is arguably one of the most important for educationists. Paying particular attention to Hesse’s last novel,
The Glass Bead Game, and its immediate predecessor,
The Journey to the East, this book suggests that Hesse was a man of the West who turned to the idea of ‘the East’ in seeking to understand himself and his society. From these later texts a rich, complex theory of educational transformation emerges.
From West to East and Back Again examines the role of dialogue and uncertainty in the transformative process, considers utopian and ritualistic elements in Hesse’s work, and explores the notion of education serving as a bridge between life and death. Hesse’s novels address philosophical themes and questions of enduring significance, and this book will appeal to all who share an interest in human striving and growth.
Etudes sur Léonard de Vinci , 2 according to which Cusanus was proposing a first formulation of the notion of inertia; and the other by Hermann Hesse, who traces the “prehistory” of The GlassBead Game 3 to Cusanus. As can be seen in the engraving reproduced here from the second edition of De Ludo