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Adam Cronin and Jeremy Field

Social aggression in an age-dependent dominance hierarchy Adam L. Cronin 1) & Jeremy Field (Depart. of Biology, University College London, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, UK) (Accepted: 8 May 2007) Summary Social aggression arises from conflicts of interest over reproduction in

Fragile Hierarchies

The Urban Elites of Third-Century Roman Egypt


Laurens Tacoma

Fragile Hierarchies deals with the world of the urban elites of third century Roman Egypt. It discusses economic, social and demographic aspects of the position of the elites of the small towns that dotted the Nile. The work combines analysis of Greek papyri with modelling techniques used in ancient history. The first part of the book analyses patterns of urbanisation, property relations and their consequences for elite formation. The second part discusses demographic aspects, patterns of inheritance and their consequences for continuity and discontinuity. The central argument of the book is that a strong social and economic hierarchy occurred side by side with a dynamic pattern of elite renewal.

Fahlbusch, Erwin and Heinemann, Heribert

1.1. Hierarchy derives from Gk. hiera archē, denoting holy origin or rule. Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite seems to have been the first to use the term in theology to expound and rank the ministry. His works The Celestial Hierarchy and The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy at the end of the fifth century

Alexandrow, Kathinka

1. Hierarchy (from Gk., hierá arché, ‘sacred origin,’ ‘rule,’ ‘government,’ ‘order’) is a fixed system of subordination and ‘super-ordination,’ a pyramidal order of rank, with a narrow apex and a broad base. Put simply, a hierarchy is a ‘stepladder’ of authority or command, whose lower instances

Benoît Dubreuil

Abstract: In all religions hierarchies play a role. If they are not themselves structured along hierarchical lines, they interact with organizations that are. To understand this complex interplay, I suggest distinguishing between social dominance hierarchies, where some individuals are considered

Rosenberger, Veit (Augsburg)

[German version] (Greek ἱεραρχία; hierarchía) Originally, the term meant ‘sacred order’. The term hierarchy, which is not attested before late antiquity, was first defined in the late 5th cent. AD by the Neoplatonist (Pseudo-)Dionysius [54] Areopagites in his treatises Perì tês ouranías hierarchías

Klaus Mörsdorf

1. Concept. Etymologically hierarchy means holy origin (ἱερά άρχή), holy dominion and, since the time of Denis the Areopagite, it has been used to signify the order given the Church by the Lord. In ecclesiastical legal language the hierarchy is the structure composed of those who, according to the

Ciobotea, Daniel, Schöpsdau, Walter and Wiedenhofer, Siegfried

[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Catholic Understanding – III. Orthodox Understanding – IV. Protestant Understanding The term hierarchy, apparently coined (c. 500 ce) by Ps.-Dionysius Areopagita, initially had the metaphysical meaning (etymologically from the Greek ἱερά/hierá and ἀρχή

Ezekiel's Hierarchical World

Wrestling with a Tiered Reality


Edited by Stephen Cook and Corrine Patton

Can we live with the God of Ezekiel? Can we relate to a God who has established a multilayered hierarchy that separates the divine from the human, who creates boundaries that segregate people from the temple, the priesthood, and the glory of the Lord? In contrast to those who suggest that Ezekiel should no longer be read as an authoritative part of the canon, the essays in this volume engage Ezekiel’s hierarchical world directly, neither dismissing it out of hand nor accepting it uncritically. By wedding theological interest and reflection with serious biblical exegesis and criticism, this work helps readers to understand Ezekiel’s hierarchical theology—especially the book's views on creation, priesthood, and land. It thus equips readers to form their own evaluations of the relevance of Ezekiel’s theology for today. Contributors include Daniel I. Block, Keith Carley, Stephen L. Cook, Katheryn Pfisterer Darr, Iain M. Duguid, Friedrich Fechter, Julie Galambush, Norman Habel, Risa Levitt Kohn, Corrine L. Patton, David L. Petersen, Baruch J. Schwartz, Daniel L. Smith-Christopher, and Steven Shawn Tuell.

Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (

Riitta Laitinen and Dag Lindström

, hierarchy, urban Introduction In Sweden, the seventeenth century was a time of intense urban forma- tion. New towns were founded, old towns resituated or given new regula- tions. Th is was also an era of a town planning frenzy unparalleled elsewhere in Europe. A great number of new town plans were drawn up