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Editors-in-Chief: William Ritchie and Tej K. Bhatia
Brill Research Perspectives in Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition provides in-depth and authoritative surveys of key topics within these disciplines. The articles are written by leading scholars in the field who have been invited to contribute and not only give an overview of the field but also their own unique perspective on it. References are hyperlinked to the original sources where possible, giving scholars the opportunity to stay on stop of the literature or reading up on a subject quickly.

Brill Research Perspectives in Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition publishes survey articles and position papers in the following subjects:

• Age (Maturation) and Aging (Attrition)
• Aphasia & Multilingualism
• Basic Research & Language Pedagogy
• Bilingualism/Multilingualism
• Child & Adult Second Language Acquisition
• Cognition & Consequences
• Forensics
• Individual Differences
• Language Contact
• Language Impairment
• Language Mixing & Hybrid Systems
• Language Processing (e.g. sentence & concept)
• Language Variation
• Learner types (e.g. Heritage; Non-Native)
• Literacy
• Mental Health
• Memory
• Motivation & Attitude
• Neurology & Neuropsychology
• Phonology , Morphology, Syntax; Pragmatics and SLA
• Research Methodology
• Sign Language
• Social Identity
• Social Media and Social Networks
• Theoretical Frameworks (e.g. Generative; Cognitive Linguistic; Emergentist; Information Processing; Sociolinguistic)
• Third Language Acquisition
• Thinking and Multilingual Competence

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The Nepali legal tradition is a legal hybrid in many regards. Nepal was not colonised by a Western state, and the Hindu legal tradition therefore dominated all areas of law until the middle of the 20th century. Since the 1950s there has been a strong influence of Indian common law. It is probably for this reason that comparative classifications that include Nepal see the legal system as a mixture of common law and customary law. However, other mixtures mark the Nepali legal tradition. French law inspired the ruler in the 19th century, and that influence can still be found in the formal law. In addition, the plurality of Nepalese society made it necessary to provide space for different customary regimes to coexist with the formal Hindu law. When it comes to innovations within the legal system, including international law, the different ingredients interact.In family-related matters, the case-law of the Nepali Supreme Court illustrates the confrontation between international legal standards and the traditional rules. The Supreme Court has referred to the culturally conditioned discrimination against women and called for a thorough (political) analysis in order to eliminate discrimination without a radical change of culture. In the area of discrimination against homo- and transsexuals the Supreme Court took a more innovative approach. It remains to be seen, however, if such a change is effective beyond the courtroom.In the area of private financial compensation for wrongs, the formal (written) Nepali law does not have a general concept of tort. Compensation is generally integrated within the ambit of criminal law. Field research indicates that it would be possible to resort to existing customary principles of compensation rather than to the relatively complex common law of torts favoured by some Nepali scholars. However, this approach might not be without difficulty, as it might imply admitting the “superiority” of the customary practices of ethnic groups of lower standing in society.The example of Nepal shows that innovation in a hybrid system is often marked by the difficulty of – at least apparently – contradictory elements and layers of the legal system. There might be a tendency towards choosing the dominant or the most easily accessible solution. This paper suggests that the hybrid nature of the legal system offers opportunities that could be taken in order to achieve effective change and appropriate solutions.

In: European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance

observation in the headquarters of Gulf-based pan-Arab satellite news media and in Egyptian newsrooms. Keywords Arab journalism ; journalistic culture ; media transnationalism ; Egypt ; satellite news media ; hybrid systems Transnational Consciousness Since the 1990s, the Arab Middle East has experienced a

In: Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication
Author: Ronald Giere

agency to the human components. The implication is that we think of these large-scale distributed cognitive systems not so much as unified wholes, but as hybrid systems including both physical artifacts and ordinary humans. Scientific Cognition as Distributed Cognition In previous publications, I have

In: Journal of Cognition and Culture

informants group stimuli based on some criterion of perceptual similarity, but those with large color vocabularies are more likely to group stimuli in line with their basic color terms. The data are best accounted for by a hybrid system that combines a universal principle of grouping by similarity with

In: Journal of Cognition and Culture
Author: Roza Pati
Acts of terror on a global scale are straining to the breaking point the due process guarantees of the legal systems of modern democracies. In unequalled breadth and depth, this book analyzes the rights of persons suspected of a crime, in normal times and emergencies, from the pre-trial phase to the trial and the post-trial period under all the universal and regional human rights treaty regimes, pertinent customary international law, general principles of law, international humanitarian law as well as the hybrid procedures developed by international criminal tribunals.

The book then presents a detailed analysis of United States’ due process guarantees, in peacetime and in war, and the executive, legislative and judicial responses to the attacks of September 11, 2001. Professor Pati appraises the American actions in terms of international law’s due process guarantees and proposes courses of action which can better defend a public order of human dignity.

Countries incorporate the principle of the separation of powers, including judicial independence, into their constitutions in an effort to meet several goals, the most important of which is to minimise government-induced tyranny. Specifically, countries that make this principle part of their constitutional practice intend to limit public servants by national laws and institutions, enhance government accountability, minimise opportunistic behaviors by civil servants and politicians, provide for checks and balances, and generally improve government efficiency. Cameroon, part of which was colonised by France, has a constitution that is modeled closely on the French Constitution of 4 October 1958. As a consequence, the country has adopted France’s hybrid system of the separation of powers. Using French constitutional practice as a model, this paper examines constitutional developments in Cameroon to determine why the country’s governing process, which is based on the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, has failed to guarantee constitutional justice.

In: European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance

The Rgyalrongic languages (Qiangic branch, Sino-Tibetan family) are prime examples of a split verb agreement system grounded in the pragmatic salience of speech act participants. However, the Horpa language in this group presents a hybrid system involving a more intricate interplay of functional and syntactic factors, despite having less elaborate morphological material than some related languages. Many fundamental issues of Horpa verb agreement remain to be adequately explored, despite preliminary descriptions in the literature. This paper provides a new study of verb agreement in the Gexi variety of Horpa based on first-hand fieldwork data. Compared with Shangzhai Horpa of Rangtang County, Gexi displays many points of difference in its agreement system, including reduplication as a number-marking device, and functionally differentiated special and general sets of person-marking suffixes, the former restricted to transitive singular actants. Gexi verb agreement is undergoing typological transition from pragmatics-driven split agreement to syntax-driven subject agreement, as part of a global morpho-syntactic shift from a head-marking to a dependent-marking grammatical type. The conversion, possibly catalyzed by contact influences from Tibetan, is still ongoing with traces of the original system preserved in the form of alternating patterns. The phenomena under analysis constitute an intermediate stage in the evolution of Qiangic verbal agreement typology between the conservative Rgyalrong, Lavrung, and Shangzhai Horpa split-agreement type and the innovative subject-agreement type observed in Qiang and Prinmi.

In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
Author: Jun LI

This article aims at a comprehensive examination of the Chinese model of teacher education by critically revisiting the developmental trajectory of the teacher education system in China over the past century, with a particular focus on policy trends since the 1990s. It interrogates the Chinese model of teacher education with two macro lenses: the historical and the comparative. The historical lens looks deeply into the Chinese way of reform with a catch-up mentality in various stages, while the comparative lens locates the Chinese model of teacher education in an international context. The paper begins with a comprehensive review of the related literature, surveys the historical pathway of China’s modern teacher education system since its birth in 1897, presents an overview of the current provisions of the system, and examines recent policy trends in the landscape of China’s teacher education. Finally, the article concludes that the Chinese model consists of a hybrid system of teacher education provided by normal schools, normal colleges and universities, with the participation of comprehensive universities and internet-based higher education institutions, and accompanied by a consistent licensing system for the teaching profession. With such core features as independence, openness, adaptability and diversity based on Confucian epistemology and pragmatism, the Chinese model of teacher education is likely to illuminate new paths for the development of education and the pursuit of excellence in the global community.

In: Frontiers of Education in China
Author: Outi Penttilä

Recently, the Arctic has transformed from a peripheral region to an area of great interest, for instance in terms of oil drilling. Nonetheless, no legal instrument has addressed the matter of accountability for transfrontier oil pollution damage. This article accordingly evaluates whether the current legal constructs, meaning State responsibility, international liability, civil liability regimes, and multilateral environmental agreements, allow accountability to be established for transboundary environmental harm resulting from hydrocarbon exploitation in the Arctic. It also examines whether these constructions could serve as the basis for future legislative actions. This article treats these four constructions as layers of accountability. After examining all of the layers in their current formulation, this article asserts that the existing layers cannot establish accountability for transboundary environmental damage in the Arctic, nor do they as such offer an effective way to regulate accountability in the future. Therefore, the article concludes that the law of accountability necessitates a new approach, such as a non-compliance mechanism or hybrid system combining elements of multiple layers. Finally, the article calls for immediate legislative actions.

In: The Yearbook of Polar Law Online