distribution records cannot be unambiguously assigned in the available databases (see footnotes for detailed explanations). The second column summarises the global extinction risk status of each species according to the IUCNredlist (IUCN, 2012), according to IUCN categories (IUCN, 2001): DD, Data Deficient
(Gavashelishvili & Lukarevskiy, 2008). Its habitat ranges from tropical forest to barren plains and from high peaks to the boundaries of metropolitan areas (Nowell & Jackson, 1996). Globally it is classified as a “Vulnerable” species in the IUCNRedList data book (Stein et al., 2016) while in Pakistan, it is
result it is difficult to recognize and separately manage distinct populations. Management efforts presently focus on the seven subspecies described during the 19th and 20th centuries, and these form the basis of the status assessments on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) RedList
inventoried in the Dutch verges are classiﬁ ed as threatened: ﬁ ve grasshopper and eleven bee species appear on national Red Lists and six ant species on the IUCNRedList. Also, in several other countries roadside verges in intensively used landscapes appear to oﬀ er opportunities for arthropod conservation
The Afrotropical region has a rich, highly diverse, and distinctly recognisable freshwater crab fauna comprising 145 species in 20 genera and two families. The entire Afrotropical freshwater crab fauna is endemic to Africa and its islands, and is distributed over 47 countries in eight distinct regions. Major centers of species richness include the Rift Valley of eastern Africa, the Upper Guinea forests of western Africa, and the Lower Guinea forests of central Africa. The IUCN Red List indicates that the majority (71%) of the 103 species of potamonautid and potamid Afrotropical freshwater crabs are of Least Concern and just two species are Near Threatened. Some twenty-eight species (27%) are listed in one of three threatened categories, either as Vulnerable (16 species), Endangered (10 species), or Critically Endangered (2 species). Excluded are the 33 species found to be Data Deficient because of a lack of information on distribution and population levels, and the 18 species discovered since the last assessment in 2009.
Freshwater ecosystems around the world support a highly diverse fauna that includes significant numbers of decapod crustaceans (freshwater crabs, crayfish, and shrimps) many of which are of economic importance. However, freshwater habitats and animals that depend on them are now under increasing threat. Recent International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments of the world’s freshwater crabs and crayfish revealed significant numbers of species threatened with extinction. The long-term survival of many freshwater species is becoming more precarious as wetland habitats are increasingly degraded and threats to freshwater biodiversity intensify. The majority of threatened decapods are restricted-range endemics living in habitats threatened by unprecedented human demands for water and food resulting in alteration of drainage patterns, pollution, and over-harvesting. Current strategies for slowing the decline of the world’s threatened freshwater decapod species include the sustainable management of their freshwater habitats and the collection of more baseline data on their diversity, population and distribution patterns, and conservation status.
The Australian Continent is home to one of the most diverse freshwater crayfish faunas in the world, and includes many of the world’s largest species of freshwater crayfish (including the largest species at ~1 m overall length), but also some of the smallest. The Australian fauna is almost entirely endemic and features some of the world’s rarest, slowest growing and longest lived species (over 30 years in some cases), the most highly endangered, but also the most iconic, charismatic and in some cases, most bizarre looking freshwater crayfish. Some species are among the hardiest, most ecologically aggressive, highly fecund, and fastest growing in the world. Due to traits desirable for fisheries and aquaculture, some species have been extensively translocated over large distances. With the exception of the arid zone, the freshwater crayfish of Australia occupy all habitat types and climatic zones on the Continent. A few species are widely distributed habitat generalists that can tolerate extremes in environmental conditions, while many other species have far smaller distributions (≪10 km2 in a number of cases) and are very closely associated with specific habitat types and rely on particular environmental conditions. The widely distributed nature of the Australian fauna exposes the Australian fauna to a broad array of very serious existing and emerging threats, all of which are mainly anthropogenic in nature. A 2010 conservation assessment of the world’s freshwater crayfish versus IUCN Red List criteria indicated that the Australian freshwater crayfish fauna was the world’s most endangered. This paper, 1) provides a review of earlier conservation reports and outlines our understanding of the situation to date, 2) presents the current conservation status of the Australian fauna, 3) provides updates on well-known and emerging threats, and 4) discusses recent discoveries and progress towards conservation of the Australian fauna.
because they can potentially harm humans. For example, considering marine elapids (69 species), representing 90% of reptile species living in oceans, a large proportion (34%) are Data Deficient on the IUCNRedList and therefore cannot be assessed, a major issue in conservation (Eifes et al., 2013
Brummitt, R.K., Powell, C.E. 1992. Authors of plant names. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
IUCN Species Survival Commission, 2001: IUCNRedList Categories. 51stMeeting of the IUCN Council, Gland.
Kamari, G. 1991. The genus Fritillaria L. in Greece: taxonomy and karyology
. Willdenowia 16 : 439 – 452 .
IUCN . 2012 . Guidelines for application of IUCNRedList criteria at regional and national levels, version 4.0 . Gland & Cambridge: IUCN .
IUCN . 2016 . Guidelines for using the IUCNRedList categories and criteria, version 12 . Available from : www