PARTNER ATTACK INHIBITION IN THE CONVICT CICHLID, CICHLASOMA (ARCHOCENTRUS) NIGROFASCIATUM by GEORGE F. TURNER') (School of Animal Biology, University College of North Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, U.K.) (Whh 3 Figures) (Acc. 15-I V-19f37) Introduction Cichlids have been the subject of
cognitive systems, a consistent re-analysis of attention with recourse to force dynamics specifications: In very general terms, an object of attention exhibits different intrinsic force tendencies that accommodate the attentional categories of activation, sustainment, attenuation, or inhibition. Such trans
Nematology , 2011, Vol. 13(6), 653-659 Inhibition response of Pinus densiflora clones to
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus systemic dispersal and their resistance to pine wilt disease
Koji M ATS UNAGA 1 , Hiroko M AEZONO 2 , ∗ , Satoshi T AMAKI 3 and Katsumi T OGASHI 4 ,
∗∗ 1 Kyushu Regional
Nematology , 2003, Vol. 5(4), 559-564 Between-isolate difference in dispersal ability of
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and vulnerability to inhibition by Pinus densi ora Katsumi T
OGASHI ¤ and Koji M ATSUNAGA Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima
University, Kagamiyama 1
PARTNER ATTACK INHIBITION IN THE SEXUALLY MONOMORPHIC BIPARENTAL CICHLID TILAPIA MARIAE by GEORGE F. TURNER1), LAMECK M. PHIRI2) and SHAUN CAWTHRAW (School of Animal Biology, University College of North Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, U.K.) (With 1 Figure) (Acc. 30-IV-1988) Introduction
SYSTEMIC INHIBITION OF ROOT-KNOT EELWORM (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA) ON TOMATO BY F. C. PEACOCK Plant Protection Limited, Jealott's Hill Research Station, Bracknell, England Attempts have been made to induce resistance in susceptible plants by chemical treatment of the aerial part of the plant. In
INHIBITION OF ROOT-KNOT DEVELOPMENT ON TOMATO BY SYSTEMIC COMPOUNDS BY F. C. PEACOCK I.C.I. Ltd., jealott's Hill Research Station, Bracknell, England PEACOCK (1959) described a technique for culturing the root-knot nematode lVleloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) under controlled conditions
degradation (Kisselev et al. , 2006 ; Papaevgeniou & Chondrogianni, 2014 ). The proteasome and its inhibition receive considerable attention in medical research as a means to affect cellular metabolism and disease (Kisselev et al. , 2012 ).
Catechin analogues and the content of Heterodera glycines
Dramatic examples of right-left asymmetry often inspire adaptive explanations, simply because it is hard to imagine how such forms could not be functionally significant. But are conspicuous morphological asymmetries necessarily adaptive? Surprisingly, in some species where direction of asymmetry is random, asymmetry in bilaterally paired traits may arise as a developmental error in a threshold trait. When cases of asymmetry are rare within a species, they are easily recognized as developmental errors. However, as asymmetrical individuals become more common, or if the asymmetry is in a signaling trait, the temptation to advance an adaptive explanation grows, particularly if the asymmetry is not clearly maladaptive. Several models of the ontogeny of asymmetry are described for both normal and anomalous random asymmetry of bilaterally paired traits. In the absence of selection, each model predicts different expected frequencies of symmetrical and asymmetrical individuals within a species, therefore such frequency distributions can effectively test for different models of development. In normal random asymmetries – where conspicuously asymmetrical individuals predominate – lateral inhibition of one side after the other has transformed appears to be an essential step in development. In anomalous random asymmetries – where conspicuously asymmetrical individuals are relatively rare – no lateral inhibition is required. Other potentially relevant variables include: purely stochastic variation in morphogen levels, useinduced asymmetry, and local (each side independent) versus central (e.g., hormonal) signaling. Examples of normal and anomalous random asymmetries are reviewed for several animal groups. A closer examination of the spectacular forelimb asymmetry in empidid dance flies raises doubts about claims that the asymmetry – both its occurrence and its direction – is adaptive, even though enlargement of the forelimbs likely is. Additional studies are required to conclude that this asymmetry is truly adaptive, as opposed to the outcome of random developmental variation in a threshold trait. This dance-fly leg asymmetry illustrates nicely how alternative hypotheses need to be considered before interpreting such variation as adaptive, even in a signaling trait.