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Tesseltje de Lange

9.1 Introduction In 2012 the European Commission presented an Entrepreneurship Action Plan 2020 (Commission, 2012 ) which noted that migrant entrepreneurs’ creativity and innovation capacity should be reinforced. To this end, the Commission would explore the possibility of proposing legislation

Tiina Korhonen, Jari Lavonen, Minna Kukkonen, Kati Sormunen and Kalle Juuti

Teachers’ engagement in Design Based Research (DBR) is analyzed in the context of the Innovative School (ISC) model. The ISC model emphasizes the development of students’ learning and learning environments, teachers’ professionalism, leadership and partnerships. The model engages teachers, students, school principals, parents, and actors of the local community in the design and adoption of educational innovations. Three Finnish teachers who had participated in DBR projects focusing on the use of Information and Communications Technology in education and collaboration in an ISC context were interviewed in order to understand how they experienced 1) the operations of the school and 2) DBR projects carried out by teams of teachers and researchers. All the interviewed teachers agreed that DBR projects in the context of ISC supported them in the design and adoption of educational innovations. As key success factors, they emphasized the importance of equality and the sharing of the same world between teachers and researchers as well as the commitment to collaboration.

Eustache Mêgnigbêto

Research papers that studied the Triple Helix in relation to international co-authorship considered international collaboration as the fourth element of the system. This paper suggests considering three levels of study to assess the effect of international collaboration on an innovation system: the domestic one, the foreign one and the global one. The mutual information and the transmission power are used as indicators. Bibliographic data of South Korea and the West African region for a 10-year period (2001–2010) were downloaded and imported to a bibliographic software application. Searches are run to determine the Triple Helix actors and their bi- or trilateral collaboration contributions per considered area, year and level. Then, the mutual information and the transmission power were computed. Results show that at the domestic level, the South Korean innovation system is more integrated, whereas the West African one is less integrated than that of their partners. Results also show that international collaboration has strengthened knowledge sharing at the domestic level for both South Korea and West Africa, but to a different extent; in other words, the two areas have benefited from international collaboration in terms of knowledge flow.

Martha G Russell, Jukka Huhtamäki, Kaisa Still, Neil Rubens and Rahul C Basole

This paper provides an evidence-based approach to understanding the relationship infrastructure of spatially defined innovation ecosystems in three metropolitan areas. With the Triple Helix framework, the ecosystem perspective, and shared vision for transformation initiatives, we explore relationships as structure in the metropolitan areas of Austin, TX; Minneapolis, MN; and Paris, France. Network metrics are interpreted as indicators of relational capital; and network visualizations reveal distinct patterns of relational space that structure business ecosystems at the enterprise, growth, and startup levels in each geographic area. We illustrate that network metrics, relationship indicators, and their visualization can be valuable resources for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating and analyzing the complexities of engagement, agility, vitality, linking, and embeddedness in innovation ecosystems. We suggest that data-driven indicators of relational capital may be used for network orchestration, evidence-based policy, and the development of shared vision in spatially defined business ecosystems.

Eustache Mêgnigbêto

Synergy within a Triple Helix innovation system has been measured in relevant literature using mutual information and transmission power, all based on Shannon’s information theory. However, as a complex system, Triple Helix relationships may also be analysed with various techniques and tools from other disciplines among which game theory. Thus, the synergy may be measured with indicators like the core, the Shapley value and the nucleolus. The core measures the extent of the synergy, the Shapley value indicates an actor’s strength to lead to and create synergy and the nucleolus determines an actor’s strength to maintain synergy. The Triple Helix innovation systems of eight countries among which four developed—USA, UK, Germany and France—and four emerging—Russia, India, Brazil and China—were analysed based on their scientific output using game theory. It appears that the biggest Triple Helix science producer has more power to lead to and create synergy; government shows solidarity to maintain synergy within the innovation system. The level of synergy is higher in developing countries (led by France, 1.7–2%) than in emerging ones (led by Brazil, less than or equal to 1%), operating a division of selected countries according to their level of development. The study shows that state intervention in the economy influences the position of the core on a ternary diagram.

Tove Brink and Svend Ole Madsen

This research reveals how small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can enable innovation and contribute to a reduction in the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in offshore wind farms. The research provides findings from a longitudinal qualitative study of 10 SMEs for the understanding of the impact from integrating SMEs in a triple helix context.

The triple helix approach with government, university and industry participants typically include larger organisations. The research indicates that SMEs could join the triple helix and both contribute and receive benefit from their presence. The findings show that SMEs need access to market and industry stakeholders to understand, learn and select among business innovation opportunities. Universities, governmental bodies and industries can create a knowledge space for organisational reciprocal learning between SMEs and larger enterprises to enable innovation for the reduction of the LCOE in the wind farm industry. This knowledge space also provides important insight and understanding for the governmental and university helices for active contribution to offshore wind energy.

The governmental policy impact stresses the need for a more strategic long-term support of industry knowledge spaces for offshore wind energy. Governmental bodies would actively enhance political growth strategies regulating competition and collaboration. Universities can contribute actively towards knowledge creation and dissemination. All three helices could benefit from this approach to SMEs. Further research needs to be conducted on SMEs in the triple helix context.

Myung-Hwan Cho

Linkages between industry and university have become crucial for knowledge discovery and driving industrialization within fast-paced global competition and technological evolution. This study offers a pair-wise cross-case analysis of the transitioning of Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) and Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) to become entrepreneurial universities through the Corporate Helix model. POSTECH and SKKU demonstrated divergent routes but convergent outcomes in technological catch-up during the double helix formation stage. Through the relationship triad POSTECH shares with the Industry and Government after being established by Pohang Steel Company, it has been committed to launching Korea into the forefront of innovative science and technology in the twenty-first century. As a result of its acquisition and intensive investment from Samsung for almost over two decades, SKKU has become one of the top schools in South Korea while interacting closely with the industry and government to cultivate the efficacy of South Korea’s national innovation system. The Corporate Helix model takes into account the university which lacks the resources and capability to become entrepreneurial and to participate in a nation’s technological catch-up to innovation-based growth. The cases of POSTECH and SKKU offer key propositions that a university can be established or acquired by the industry and through this partnership undergo transformation to become entrepreneurial.

JEL: I25, O31, O38

Kennet Granholm

Abstract: Innovation is a largely ignored concept in the study of religion. Most often, it has been seen as a reaction to influences that are either culturally foreign or else culturally native but still external to a religion. Innovation is typically pitted against tradition, when in fact the two


Ulrich Heinen


Der Beitrag weist anhand von Beispielen der Geschichte der Bautechnik (Filippo Brunelleschi), der Oper wie auch der Entdeckung Amerikas durch Kolumbus darauf hin, daß sich frühneuzeitliche Innovationsimpulse nicht selten produktiven Mißverständnissen wie auch insbesondere dem Studium antiker Quellen verdanken. Im Anschluß an die moderne Kreativitätsforschung wird dargelegt, daß jegliche Innovation Bereitschaft zum Irrtumsrisiko und Frustrationstoleranz schlichtweg voraussetzt. In diesem Zusammenhang wächst in modernem Kontext der antik-stoischen Philosophie neue Bedeutung zu, insofern sie dazu anleitet, jegliche Angst um das eigene Leben – und damit erst recht die vor dem Scheitern inventiven Denkens oder innovativen Handelns – zu relativieren. Zugleich bindet diese Betrachtung den Handelnden in den Zusammenhang der gesamten stoischen Lehre ein, aus der sich zugleich ethische Konsequenzen wie die Selbstverpflichtung zur Standhaftigkeit ergeben.

Industry, government-sanctioned research and development and the private sectors have historically been the champions of fostering innovation with the aim of addressing changing human needs as well as economic gain. The connectivity of the 21st century coupled with advances in information systems and the unchecked advent of globalization have resulted in challenges to existing institutional structures in place as well as a greater awareness of inequities within and across different regions of the world. Innovation and innovation education are the new buzz words increasingly inundating popular discourses in different media. The aim of this avant-garde book series is to unfold the conceptual foundations of innovation from historical, socio-political, economic, scientific and ethical perspectives, as well as apply these foundations towards issues confronting education, science and society in the 21st century.