disease importation into their territory. In 1969 the ISR were renamed the InternationalHealthRegulations (IHR), and two diseases – relapsing fever and typhus – were removed as these two diseases no longer posed a challenge to high-income countries. In 1981 following the successful smallpox eradication
) the ‘no-harm’ principle; b) international disaster law; c) the InternationalHealthRegulations; d) international human rights law (‘ ihrl ’); and e) international humanitarian law (‘ ihl ’). In what follows, we outline the most relevant features of those regimes and demonstrate the extent to which
further below, this framework consists of a set of rules and principles that can be derived from the intertwined fields of international humanitarian law (IHL), human rights law (HRL) and medical ethics. Of further importance are the InternationalHealthRegulations from the World Health Organization (WHO
InternationalHealthRegulations (2005) Stefania Negri Associate Professor of International Law, University of Salerno, Italy Abstract The UNECE Protocol on Water and Health prioritises prevention and control of waterborne diseases in the European Region. In order to protect public health from water
is the World Health Organisation’s InternationalHealthRegulations, which are next discussed.
In 2005, in the wake of the sars epidemic, the World Health Organisation updated its InternationalHealthRegulations.
These Regulations address
useful; it was used only once, in 2015, in connection with the ebola outbreak. Possibly as a result, when the who used its quasi-legislative powers in 2005 and adopted a new set of InternationalHealthRegulations ( ihr )
under Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution,
it created a novel
World Health Organization ( who ) and the InternationalHealthRegulations most recently revised in 2005 ( ihr 2005).
who alerted member states at the beginning of 2020 upon receiving a notification from China under Article 6 of the ihr 2005 about the local spread in Wuhan of atypical
The World Health Organization (who) was established in 1946 as a specialized agency of the United Nations (un). Since its establishment, the who has managed outbreaks of infectious diseases from a regulatory, as well as an operational perspective. The adoption of the International Health Regulations (ihrs) has been an important achievement from the former perspective. When the Ebola epidemic intensified in 2014, the who Director General issued temporary recommendations under the ihrs in order to reduce the spread of the disease and minimize cross-border barriers to international trade. The un Secretary General and then the Security Council and the General Assembly have also taken action against the Ebola epidemic. In particular, the Security Council adopted a resolution under Chapter vii of the un Charter, and thus connected the maintenance of the international peace and security to the health and social emergency. After dealing with the role of the who as a guide and coordinator of the reaction to epidemics, this article shows how the action by the Security Council against the Ebola epidemic impacts on the who ‘authority’ for the protection of health.
framework to manage biosecurity risks, including the risk of contagion of a listed human disease, the risk of listed human diseases entering Australia, ballast water, biosecurity and human biosecurity emergencies; implementing the InternationalHealthRegulations 2005, the World Health Organization