The role of Iranian merchants in the maritime trade of the Indian Ocean basin from antiquity up to the 16th century is often underestimated. From scholarly histories to popular culture the “Muslim sailor” is typically portrayed as being an Arab. In fact, from pre-Islamic times the principal actors in Indian Ocean trade were predominantly Persian, as attested by the archaeological data, local written records, and the names of places and individuals.
no such guarantee in the study of IranianinChinese transliteration and it is not surprising that one is often limited to the cautious recognition of individual Iranian words. Bryder identifies the first of the three hymns (cols. 1-5) as a Na- risah hymn and has gone further than any other previous
� k � sh � , 10 vols., Tokyo, 1932-4 (reprinted 1956-60). Tarn, W. W., The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge, 1951. Tashakori, Abbas, "IraninChinese Dynastic Histories", M.A. thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, 1974. Tazaka K � d � Ch � goku ni okeru Kaiky � no denrai to sono guts