Fumitaka Furuoka

Human Rights Conditionality and Aid Allocation • 125 Human Rights Conditionality and Aid Allocation: Case Study of Japanese Foreign Aid Policy F  F  * A  This paper examines a new trend in Japan’s O ffi cial Devel- opment Assistance (ODA) policy that emerged at the end of the

Richard Brown

Will Japan Become a Global Power? Richard H. Brown Formerly, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland Abstract Many have argued that Japan will soon emerge as one of the world’s greatest powers. During the nineteenth century, Japan had pressed for pre-eminence in Asia and beyond. Does

Richard Brown

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2007 DOI: 10.1163/156853107X240314 Asian Journal of Social Science 35 (2007) 488–510 www.brill.nl/ajss Alternative Modernities: A Cultural Genealogy of Japan’s Modernization Richard H. Brown † Formerly, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland Abstract

Arne Kalland

HOLISM AND SUSTAINABILITY: LESSONS FROM JAPAN Arne Kalland Abstract It is often claimed that environmental problems facing the world today can be attributed to dualism and anthropocentrism rooted in Christianity. Hence, it is argued that a solution to these problems can be sought in holism and

The Book in Japan

A Cultural History from the Beginnings to the Nineteenth Century

Series:

Peter Kornicki

This study deals with all aspects of the history of the book in Japan, from the production of manuscripts and printed books to book-collecting, libraries, censorship and readership. It also sets books in the context of Japan's cultural ties with China, Korea and Parhae.
The focus is on the history of both texts and physical books. This encompasses not only books in Japanese but also books in Chinese by Chinese and Korean authors, and some Western books as well.
It is an essential reference tool and bibliographic guide for all those interested in book studies, and particularly of importance for historians of Japanese culture. It is illustrated with examples taken from various collections of early Japanese books in Europe.

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Schmidt

Capital punishment has been carried out in Japan since ancient times. Although ancient Japan uniquely suspended executions for several centuries towards the end of the first millennium, today the death penalty is firmly established in Japan.
This volume explores the current state of capital punishment, the domestic discussion on the subject, and the influence of the political orientations of the governments of recent years.
The treatise is of current interest especially because of the Aum cult, whose leader Shoko Asahara is at present tried in Tokyo. If found guilty, he may be sentenced to death. After a three years' interval (between 1989 and 1993), Japan is nowadays undergoing a capital punishment "renaissance" with 39 executions between 1993 and 2000.

Japan and International Law, Past, Present and Future

International Symposium to Mark the Centennial of the Japanese Association of International Law

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Edited by Japanese Assoc. of International Law and Nisuke Ando

This book is a record of the international symposium held at the Kyoto International Conference Hall to mark the centennial of the Japanese Association of International Law. The purpose of the symposium was to reflect on past Japanese practice, to analyze current problems affecting Japan, and to seek to clarify the future role of Japan in the global community, in terms of international law.
After joining the international community in the middle of the nineteenth century, Japan adopted a policy of wealth creation and armament in order to maintain its independence against the expanding Western States. At the same time, on the domestic scene, Japan vigorously promoted the modernization - Westernization - of its political, economic, and social institutions. Japan emerged as one of the victorious `Principal Allied and Associated Powers' in World War I, and started asserting its place in the international order. However, in the aftermath of the Great Depression, Japan failed to reach agreement with the international community, eventually left the League of Nations, invaded the Asian continent, and met with complete military defeat in World War II. In the subsequent years, Japan toiled to rebuild its economy and to rejoin the world community, but despite its miraculous economic recovery and expansion, Japan remains ambivalent in its policy of contributing to the maintenance of international peace and security.
During these one and a half centuries the Japanese practice of international law has covered a wide range of fields. From these various fields, the symposium took up three specific topics: War and Peace, Economy, and Human Rights, because of their relevance to past Japanese practice and because future Japanese practice in these areas would be bound to affect international law in the coming century. In addition, the symposium discussed Japanese transactions, in general, with international law.
The period covered by the symposium has witnessed many drastic changes in the world, and international law, which used to be applied almost exclusively to relations among the Western States, has now come to be applied universally. The Association wished to emphasize that an analysis of Japanese practice should be of significance for anyone interested in promoting and consolidating the rule of law in the world community at large.

The Foundations of Japan's Modernization

A Comparison with China's Path Towards Modernization

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Yoda

Tracing and evaluating the development in the history of Japanese culture and society that permits Japan's rapid and continuing modernization, Professor Yoda provides a new and original approach to the modernization of Japan. He starts from the assumption that Japan was better equipped for modernization because pre-modern Japan had already started to abandon Confucian influences. In his account of modernization during the Meiji-period he focuses on general patterns inherent in Japanese culture and society enabling Japan to integrate foreign elements without having to follow foreign models slavishly.
"Patterns in culture", such as the Japanese preference for juxtaposing the new and the ancient, are contrasted with China's preference for discarding past institutions in revolutionary processes. The transferability of paradigms such as "absolutism" is accepted with some modifications. In the major descriptive part of the work, the history of economic, political, institutional modernization is presented on the basis of quotations from original Japanese (and Chinese) sources, arranged within the methodological framework of universal historical concepts, indigenous cultural patterns and specific conditions in both countries.
The book is composed of two articles previously published in Japanese and Chinese, two new chapters written especially for the volume, and background information provided by Professor Radtke.

Japan’s Sexual Gods

Shrines, Roles and Rituals of Procreation and Protection

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Stephen Turnbull

Japan’s Sexual Gods is an authoritative and original work that describes the unique deities represented by sexual objects in certain Japanese shrines and temples. Hundreds of sexual shrines still exist in spite of previous repression and range from the Tagata Shrine with its well-known giant festival phallus to small obscure places. Many also contain female sexual imagery and some phalluses act in a protective role. The study is based on observations of over 500 sexual sites including phallic festivals, many of which are modern inventions created purely for commercial reasons. The study makes an assessment of the place of sexual beliefs in modern Japan and includes almost 300 stunning original photographs, a glossary and a highly detailed map.

Yann-huei Song

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI: 10.1163/157180808X353993 Th e International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 24 (2009) 101–139 www.brill.nl/estu THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARINE AND COASTAL LAW Th e Eff orts of ICCAT to Combat IUU Fishing: Th e Roles of Japan and Taiwan in