Natural areas and resources form the basis for many regional economies in the Arctic. Natural conditions, including climate, have been considered stable on human timescales and taken as starting points in regional development work – until recently. During the past few years the notion of a changing climate with various ecological and socio-economic impacts has made its way also to regional development strategies. Despite the common perception of climate change as completely devastating for the whole Arctic, the effects can be regionally differentiated.
This article discusses regional development related strategic planning as a forum and tool for addressing climate change. This is carried out by empirically examining the emergence of climate change as an important trend or factor in the development programmes of one region in the Arctic, Finnish Lapland, mid-1990s onwards. The review sets a background for the ways how climate change is thought to affect Lapland’s economy and society in the future, as presented in the region’s recently published Climate Change Strategy 2030. Climate change, nowadays regarded as an important trend affecting the region’s future, is expected to bring along new opportunities for Lapland and change the strategic position of the region to a more favourable one also in wider political and economic sense.
Regional development related strategic planning can, in some politicoadministrational cultures such as in Finland, serve well as a context for climate change adaptation, but the task to promote regional development can lead to less emphasis on global environmental concern and more on ensuring the auspicious development in the region.
The Kemi, the largest river in Finnish Lapland, has long provided a focus for the lives of the riparian inhabitants, who have nicknamed it elämän virta , “stream of life.” Descending to the sea, it flows along alternating level and steep stretches, with commensurate differences in
northern Finland and particularly in Finnish Lapland, the country’s northernmost province, the majority of which is located north of the Arctic Circle. At present, the sectors with Chinese investment presence are bioeconomy and tourism. In terms of future prospects, mining, renewable energy, data centers
Benthic Insect Communities of Streams in Stora Sjöfallet National Park, Swedish Lapland By S. ULFSTRAND, B. SVENSSON, P. H. ENCKELL, L. HAGERMAN and C. OTTO Department of Animal Ecology, University of Lund, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden Abstract Benthic animal communities in streams with varying
The Yearbook of Polar Law, based at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland, covers a wide variety of topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic. These include:
- human rights issues, such as autonomy and self-government vs self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources and cultural rights and cultural heritage, indigenous traditional knowledge
- local and national governance issues
- environmental law, climate change, security and environment implications of climate change, protected areas and species
- regulatory, governance and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, continental shelf claims
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea
- peace and security, dispute settlement
- jurisdictional and other issues re the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals, bioprospecting
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law, and
- the roles and actual involvement of international organizations in the Polar regions, such as the Arctic Council, the European Union, the International Whaling Commission, the Nordic Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, as well as NGOs.
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Yearbook of International Disaster Law is to foster the interest of academics and practitioners on legal and institutional issues relevant to all forms of natural, technological/human-made disasters, including rapid and slow onset events, but excluding armed conflicts or political/financial crises per se. The Yearbook will primarily address the international law dimension of relevant topics, alongside important regional and national dimensions relevant for the further development of legal and policy initiatives. The Yearbook fills a current gap in international journals as there is no a specific hub devoted to this area of law notwithstanding the increasing academic interest towards such issues.
Finnish Lapland is comprised of mostly sparsely populated municipalities, with only 2.1 persons per square kilometre on average in an area of nearly 100 000 square kilometres. The situation for lesbians, gay men and bisexuals living in this rural environment is prevalently painted condescendingly as ‘terrible,’ meaning that in order to live openly they are forced to move into cities or urban areas, thus becoming so called ‘sexual refugees.’ Queer space and place are usually seen as urban. It is a norm in gay culture, in academic research and the media. Moreover, studies concerning rural spaces and communities usually focus explicitly or implicitly on heterosexuality. While urban areas offer a wider selection of spaces aimed at sexual minorities (clubs, meetings, bars etc.), some LGB persons nevertheless prefer a rural setting, building their identities and their own queer space within the village or small town community. An interesting dynamic is also added by the prevalence of ski resorts in Lapland, which during ski season turn into temporary pseudo-towns, populated by tourists and seasonal workers. These resorts also offer the residents of surrounding rural areas a space in which the traditional moral orders of rural life are contested. Finnish Lapland has traditionally been a place where differences of gender, sexuality, religion, ethnic background, political views and class intersect; these differences are inescapable in small communities whereas in urban environments it is easier to choose who you associate with. How do rural lesbians, gay men and bisexuals carve out a space for themselves and their identities in relation to the environment that is predominantly seen by outsiders as hostile towards minorities? In my chapter I will also consider how queer theoretical ideas are applicable when researching sexual minorities in rural communities in Finnish Lapland.
COMMUNICATIONS Marja Leena SARAKOSKI 1 ) : Potato cyst nematode, Heterodera rostochiensis, discovered in Finnish Lapland. Potato cyst nematode, Heteroderct ro.rtochien.ri.r Wollenweber, was first dis- covered in Southern Finland in 1946, but subsequently several new infestations were found, with five of them
A New Limonia from Swedish Lapland (Dipt., Tipulidae) By HANS MENDL Ecological station, S-960 36 Messaure, Sweden Johann-Schütz-Strasse 3I, 896 Kempten/Allgäu, BRD Thanks to the courtesy of Prof. Dr. Karl Miiller, Oecological station Messaure, I had the opportunity of studying the Limoniinfauna