Affad 23, situated in upper alluvial deposits related to a former channel of the Nile in the Affad District, Southern Dongola Reach, Sudan, is mainly known through its upper or surface level. The combined data concerning the position of the site, composition of the lithic assemblage, freshness, refittings and dispersion of the artefacts point to a late Middle Palaeolithic workshop used for short periods. It utilized discoid and levallois debitage of Hudi Chert collected from the palaeochannel during the lowwater season. The animal remains suggest opportunistic hunting of medium-sized antelopes, probably mainly kobs living near the site, some dorcas gazelles, occasionally hippopotamus and other big game, as well as small vertebrates, much less visible in the collected samples. A lower level, separated from the surface level by a deposit of some 30 cm, represents an earlier workshop. The easy access to chert in the palaeochannel may also explain the existence of other Paleolithic sites along the channel as workshops.
A survey in the El Gouna area, Red Sea, Egypt, disclosed the presence of Acheulean, early Middle Palaeolithic, late Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Holocene sites. One of the Middle Holocene sites is a “Steinplatz” with Predynastic lithic material.
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Shea , J.J. 2014 . Sink the Mousterian? Named stone tool industries ( NASTIES ) as obstacles to investigating hominin evolutionary relationships in the LaterMiddlePaleolithic Levant . Quaternary International 350 , 169 - 179 .
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. & Gautier , A. 2011 . Affad 23, a LateMiddlePalaeolithic site with refitted lithics and animal remains in the Southern Dongola Reach, Sudan . Journal of African Archaeology 9 , 177 - 188 .
Rohling , E.J. , Cane , T.R. , Cooke , S. , Sprovieri , M. , Bouloubassi , I. , Emeis , K