Thibaut Jaulin

On June 22, 1994, the Lebanese government of Rafik al-Hariri granted citizenship by decree to an estimated 150,000 stateless and foreign residents. According to its promoters, such massive naturalization (about 5% of the Lebanese population at that time) aimed to bring a final answer to the

Youssef Nohra, Dany Azar, Raymond Gèze, Sibelle Maksoud, Antoine El-Samrani and Vincent Perrichot

Anderson, 2009; Azar et al., 2010; Schmidt et al., 2012 ). After the recent discovery of some arthropods in Triassic amber from the Dolomites, Italy ( Schmidt et al., 2012 ), the Lebanese Lower Cretaceous amber is no longer the oldest one with biological inclusions, but still very important for the study

Mark Farha

* This article was made possible by nprp Grant #6-028-5-006 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author. Introduction As a longstanding consensus democracy, the Republic of Lebanon offers a

Giampaolo Conte

1 Friendship agreement between Italy and Lebanon After the end of the Second World War, Italy wanted to build a new commercial route and a relationship with some Arab countries using her status of “power defeated” to penetrate the space left by France and the United Kingdom. 1 Many Italian

Filippo Dionigi

the nature of transborder dynamics, especially as concerns forced displacement. It proposes an analysis of the nature of borders between Syria and Lebanon through an adaptation of the concept of “thin border” focusing on people displacement from Syria to Lebanon. 7 Thin borders are

Isabelle Veltz, Jean-Claude Paicheler, Sibelle Maksoud, Raymond Gèze and Dany Azar

amber ranges from a few millions to 320 million years (Mid Carboniferous) ( Sargent Bray and Anderson, 2009 ), but to date the oldest one with intensive biological inclusions is the Lebanese one ( Azar et al., 2010 ). More than 375 outcrops have been recently discovered in Lebanon after intensive

Lama Mourad

refugee population per capita in the world, Lebanon now officially hosts at least 1.1 million Syrian refugees alongside a local population of approximately four million. Until late 2014, the Lebanese government maintained de facto open borders and little to no regulation of Syrians within its borders. 1

Rosita Di Peri

1 Introduction In 1998, Lebanese President Elias Hrawi (Ilyās al-Harāwī) presented a draft law to establish a unified code for civil marriage in the country. The draft law was needed for a nation characterised by different personal status codes for its various communities (or groups of

A Political Economy of Lebanon, 1948-2002

The Limits of Laissez-faire


Toufic Gaspard

This book is about the laissez-faire strategy for economic development, a strategy inspired by neoclassical/mainstream economics, advocated by the “Washington Consensus”, and implemented by the Bretton Woods institutions.

Mainstream economics has taken legitimacy from the historical failure of command economies. But this view has not been balanced by an examination of the performance of laissez-faire economies, the closest to the pure market model. Lebanon provides a unique test case in this regard.

The book assesses Lebanon’s development during 1948-2002, including its industrial and financial performance. The dynamics of the laissez-faire system is separately studied from a Post-Keynesian perspective, highlighting institutional behavior. It is found that laissez-faire is not a sufficient condition for economic development, and can even be counterproductive.

David Perez-Des Rosiers

a dynamic structure that could provide insights into China’s future role in the region. Lebanon and Syria are also two states that are often overlooked, with complex political situations and opposition groups. Indeed, they both suffer sectarian divisions with Sunni, Shi’a, Christian, and Kurds