, 1983 ; Andersson, 1994 ).
Some anurans compromise on matequality to ensure conspecific matings in overlapping populations (Marquez & Bosch, 1997 ; Pfennig, 2000 ; Hettyey et al., 2005 ). For example, females or males that do not co-occur with heterospecifics may prefer extreme secondary sexual
-fostered males mate guarding less due to a reduced affinity for their female. Such trade-offs may have a general significance for mate guarding species. Keywords : mate guarding, territoriality, matequality, sexual imprinting, cross-fostering, Parus major . Introduction Mate guarding is characterized by the
Female choice and mate preference have been shown to affect female reproductive effort both prior to copulation (e.g. females seeking extra-pair copulation) and during parental care ('secondary' reproductive effort) in relation to matequality. Here we show that female zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata
(Candolin, 2003; see also Grether et al., 2004a). Different signals either may give information about different matequalities (multiple messages hypoth- esis) or they may allow a more accurate matequality assessment if each signal reflects the same quality trait (back-up signal hypothesis) (Møller
Schaik, 1983 ; Fernández-Juricic & Kacelnik, 2004 ), territory or matequality (Danchin & Wagner, 1997 ; Valone & Templeton, 2002 ). However paying attention to conspecifics induces costs (Giraldeau et al., 2002 ), in the form of time constraints (Pollard, 2010 ) or incorrect decision
, including T. scripta elegans , may convey information to conspecifics regarding matequality because color expression and immune function are positively correlated (Polo-Cavia et al., 2012 ; Ibáñez et al., 2013 ). It seems increasingly likely that pigmentation patterns of freshwater turtle integuments
. Among the factors that in uence the timing of breeding, which include the age, health, competitive ability, or matequality of individuals, is the longevity of the pair bond, with birds that remain mated across years initiating breeding earlier in the season than newly formed pairs. The behavioural
volume of literature dedicated to individual-level measures of matequality. This study assessed variation in the stability of pair relationships in cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) and sought sources for that variation in both the behavior of mated individuals and their compatibility. Pair
Crustacean males grasp and/or guard females before copulation to ensure mating, but females typically resist males during pair formation. The benefit of resistance for females might allow (1) females to optimize mate quality, or (2) to avoid costs incurred during guarding. However, it has not been fully investigated which benefits actually improve female fitness. Here we investigated female resistance, temporal dynamics of intersexual conflict during reproduction, and the effect of male size and male mating frequency on female fecundity in the marine isopod, Cleantiella isopus to examine the relative importance of the two mechanisms mentioned before. Females resisted even after they had become receptive. Females which mated with small males showed lower fecundity than the ones with large males, and small males were frequently unable to form pairs. These results suggest that female resistance of C. isopus against males can function as a way to optimize mate quality.
222 PARKER, G. A., 1983. Matequality and mating decisions. In: P. Bateson, Mate Choice: 141- 164. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). WARD, P. I., 1983. Advantages and a disadvantage of large size for male Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 14: 69