Animal Biology , Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 41-58 (2005)  Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2005. Also available online - www.brill.nl Motor unit recruitment during vertebrate locomotion Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK Abstract —Vertebrate

In: Animal Biology

Animal Biology , Vol. 55, No. 3, p. 281 (2005)  Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2005. Also available online - www.brill.nl Erratum The article entitled “Motor unit recruitment during vertebrate locomotion” has been published in Animal Biology, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 41-58. Unfortunately, one of the

In: Animal Biology

elastically to shoot off its tongue with a power that exceeds the direct power of the tongue muscle by an order of magnitude. To deal with a wide range of demands, muscles often contain several fibre types and motor-units to respond to a particular locomotor demand (Wakeling). Wakeling reviews the factors

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affecting the motor unit, the smallest functional unit of the muscle. With voluntary muscle contraction, the action potential re ecting the electrical activity of a single anatomical motor unit can be recorded. It is the compound motor unit action potential (MUAP) of those muscle Ž bers within the

In: Frontiers of Medical and Biological Engineering

individual motor units in masticatory muscles fire single or double twitches or tetani. DESMEDT & GoDAUx (1977) showed that in brisk ballistic contractions motor units can reach initial (measured for the first two interspike intervals) stimulation rates of 60-120/sec. For this reason, double twit- ches

In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology

proximal side (an increasing number of muscle fibres contribute to the load in a proximal direction). This is most likely compensated by an increasing cross- sectional area of the aponeurosis in the disto-proximal direction. When all motor units are activated simultaneously, this could lead to a

In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology

patterns of the three muscle fiber types among muscles, and differences in the distribution of muscle fiber types among the divisions of one muscle (GONYEA & ERICSON, 1976; ENGLISH, 1984; ENGLISH & WEEKS, 1984). WINESKI & HERRING (1983) have examined the organization of motor units in pig masseter muscle

In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology

shown to recover the repertoire size of their song motor units (syllables) during a period of several months following the lesion of the left HVC, a cortex-analogous sensory-motor integration area of the vocal control system. Many of these syllables appeared newly learned during the recovery period

In: Animal Biology

without a load. The muscle can be stretched artifically or by naturally oc- curring processes, in the presence or absence of stimuli. An important characteristic of muscle in relation to the EMG is the number of fibres belonging to one motor unit. In man the laryngeal muscles have small motor units of

In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology

available concerning the relevant elastic and viscous constants, passive and dynamic stiffness, or the number of motor units that become active with each wingbeat. Regardless of an elastic storage component, our data suggest that the pectoralis of the Euro- pean starling possesses a contraction pattern

In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology