Pits of a softwood (Pinus wallichiana) and a hardwood (Mallotus japonicus) were studied by Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). The samples were chemically untreated and fully hydrated during freezing. Tori of P. wallichiana were frequently aspirated. It is not clear whether torus aspiration was caused by the freezing process or other factors during preparation. Aspirated tori had a turgid appearance. Offcenter aspirated tori which did not completely cover the pit pore could be detected. The margo strands were usually quite large and fanned out into fibrillar structures at the pit border. Pit membranes of M. japonicus had a very granular appearance. No fibrillar structures, different layers or pores could be detected. The granular structures may have developed from a continuous layer covering the pit membrane during freezing. Cryo-SEM is discussed as a further suitable tool for obtaining novel information about the native state of pit membranes. Future studies are needed to validate whether all observed features represent characteristics of the native state.
, Ishikawa & Ito, sp. n. Figs 1–3, 10–13, 28, 30
Holotype ♂, Japan : Honshu: The University of Tokyo, Komaba Campus, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 35°39′40.80″N 139°41′02.01″E, from flowers of Mallotusjaponicus , 26.vi.2013, T. Ishikawa (AMNH_PBI 00379668) (AMNH). Paratypes : 11♂ 48♀, same
Chrysanthemum spp. (Asteraceae), Humulus japonicas Siebold & Zucc. (Cannabaceae), and Mallotusjaponicus (Thunb.) Müll.Arg. (Euphorbiaceae).
This phyline is also present on vegetables (eggplant, cucumber, okra, tomato, pimento, etc.) and fruit trees (orange, mango, papaya, etc.). Although C. livida may
Shi jing reads You tiao you mei. Tiao , is tao trees”《詩》云‘有 條有梅’，條，槄也. Guo Pu 郭璞 says, “It is today’s shanqiu trees (‘mallotusjaponicus’)” 今之山楸也. The Shi jing of the Han Stone Classics 漢石經 《詩經》reads tao 槄, so that the Lu Shi 魯詩 also reads tao . Based on such evidence, we can speculate