1 Introduction As is the case with many older civilizations and peoples, the ancient Chinese considered themselves the center of the world and thus named themselves Zhongguo 中國, the MiddleKingdom. To be the center of the world signifies not only the geographic location of a country but also the
The Representations of Women in the Middle Kingdom Tombs of Officials Ľubica Hudáková offers an in-depth analysis of female iconography in the decorative programme of Middle Kingdom non-royal tombs, highlighting changes and innovations in comparison to the Old Kingdom. Previously considered too uniform, the study represents the first systematic investigation of two-dimensional images of women and reveals their variability in space and time.
Hudáková examines the roles appointed to women by analyzing how they are depicted in a variety of contexts. Taking into account their postures, gestures, garments, hairstyles, size of the body, age as well as attributes and tools used by them, along with the scene orientation, she traces diachronic and diatopic developments and regional traditions in the Middle Kingdom tomb decoration.
a group of MiddleKingdom-Second Intermediate Period high ranking officials—the treasurers. Thirty-seven holders of the title “treasurer” are now known from 95 inscribed objects (stelae, inscribed statues, funerary chapels with biographical inscriptions, scarab-seals). Although the office of
Concepts in Middle Kingdom Funerary Culture presents a collection of archaeological and philological papers discussing how ancient Egyptians thought, and modern scholars may think, about Egyptian funerary practices of the early 2nd millennium BCE.
Targeting the concepts used by modern scholars, the papers address both general methodological questions of how concepts should be developed and used and more specific ones about the history and presuppositions behind particular Egyptological concepts. In so doing, the volume brings to the fore occasionally problematic intellectual baggage that have hindered understanding, as well highlighting new promising avenues of research in ancient Egyptian funerary culture in the Middle Kingdom and more broadly.
In the 12th Dynasty (ca. 1985-1773 BC) the Egyptian state sent a number of seafaring expeditions to the land of Punt, located somewhere in the southern Red Sea region, in order to bypass control of the upper Nile by the Kerma kingdom. Excavations at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis on the Red Sea coast of Egypt from 2001 to 2011 have uncovered evidence of the ancient harbor (
Saww) used for these expeditions, including parts of ancient ships, expedition equipment and food – all transported ca. 150 km across the desert from Qift in Upper Egypt to the harbor. This book summarizes the results of these excavations for the organization of these logistically complex expeditions, and evidence at the harbor for the location of Punt.
“[There] is no shortage of analysis relating to the Punt expeditions, much of which is likely to become the new ‘standard’ account of these voyages and of the huge logistical and ideological undertaking they represented. The volume will therefore be of immense value to scholars and students of ancient Egypt, and of ancient seafaring more generally.” - Julian Whitewright,
University of Southampton, in:
The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 48.2 (2019)
The matter of saṃgha-state relations is of central importance to both the political and the religious history of China. The volume
The Middle Kingdom and the Dharma Wheel brings together, for the first time, articles relating to this field covering a time span from the early Tang until the Qing dynasty. In order to portray also the remarkable thematic diversity of the field, each of the articles not only refers to a different time but also discusses a different aspect of the subject.
Contributors include: Chris Atwood, Chen Jinhua, Max Deeg, Barend ter Haar, Thomas Jülch, Albert Welter and Zhang Dewei.
This book is about epithets on Egyptian monumental inscriptions, and about the conclusions one may draw from them. Epithets in the first place characterize the owner of the text and encourage others to maintain his memorial cult.
Though formulaic and not describing actual historical events, this thorough study points out that these epithets are in fact
valuable indicators of religious, social and political attitudes. In the case of this volume, the author analyses the epithets of non-royal officials from the Middle Kingdom (c. 2040-1640 BCE).
Drawing on evidence from several hundred inscriptions, it assesses the relationship of elite, scribal-class officials to their gods, the king, each other, and their dependants, and discusses the Egyptian world view, beliefs about the afterlife, and the changing role of elite provincial administrators relative to the central administration. It also studies the effect of an inscription's context and its owner's official titles on the subject matter of the epithets.
Historical and Archaeological Aspects of Egyptian Funerary Culture, a thoroughly reworked translation of
Les textes des sarcophages et la démocratie published in 2008, challenges the widespread idea that the “royal” Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom after a process of “democratisation” became, in the Middle Kingdom, accessible even to the average Egyptian in the form of the Coffin Texts. Rather they remained an element of elite funerary culture, and particularly so in the Upper Egyptian nomes. The author traces the emergence here of the so-called “nomarchs” and their survival in the Middle Kingdom. The site of Dayr al-Barshā, currently under excavation, shows how nomarch cemeteries could even develop into large-scale processional landscapes intended for the cult of the local ruler. This book also provides an updated list of the hundreds of (mostly unpublished) Middle Kingdom coffins and proposes a new reference system for these.
in search of the valuable bekhen stone. 1 In the surrounding area, gold was mined at Bir Umm Fawakhir, 2 and the valley was one of the routes to the Red Sea, where MiddleKingdom activities were attested in the pharaonic port of Mersa Gawasis, just south of Safaga. 3 There are numerous
This article is the first of a two-part study of administrative papyri regarding Lower Nubia during the late MiddleKingdom. This first part focuses on the Semna Dispatches in light of previously unpublished fragments (P. Ramesseum 19.2). The second part complements it by editing and analyzing P