et al. 2010 ), Malvaceae ( Rodriguez-Reyes et al. 2014 ), Chrysobalanaceae ( Jud et al. 2016 ), Calophyllaceae ( Nelson & Jud , in press), and Fabaceae (Rodriguez-Reyes et al., under review). In the present paper we describe a new fossil wood type from the Miocene of Panama, which further
. 2010 ; Raine et al. 2011 ) from sites dating from the Paleocene to the Miocene ( Steane et al . 2003 ). Macrofossils of Casuarina ( Christophel 1980 , cladodes, ‘cones’, and inflorescences) and Allocasuarina ( Jordan 1997 , stem fragments and ‘cones’) are reported from Australia, while
Eighty-two silicified fossil woods were collected from Miocene formations on the western coast of the Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Twenty-two taxa (5 conifers and 17 dicotyledons) were identified. Five new species (Chamaecyparis parathyoides, Pterocarya parvipora, Populus soyaensis, Schima protowallichii, Lagerstroemia odaniense) and two species not previously known from the Miocene of Yamagata are described. This brings the number of fossil wood taxa from the Miocene of Yamagata to 39. Warm temperate elements such as Keteleeria, Liquidambar, Distylium and Lagerstroemia were found in the formations studied. The fossil wood assemblages from four Miocene formations (except Onisakatoge Formation from which only one sample was collected) suggest that the woody flora changed gradually during the Miocene from a mixture of cool and warm temperate elements to a warm temperate assemblage. These changes agree well with the vegetation changes during the Miocene in Japan; from the Aniai type to the Daijima-type.
the fossil biology of the giant flying birds of the Neogene offers an opportunity to examine the density and composition of their flight medium, as birds such as the Miocene fossil Argentavis magnificens and the Pelagornithadae would require improbably high values of stress and strain for level
Early Miocene fossil woods of Gebel Ruzza, Egypt, were examined and two new records (Cynometroxylon schlagintweitii and Afzelioxylon welkitii) for Egypt are reported. A hot wet palaeoclimate is suggested for the Early Miocene collection site. The literature on fossil dicot woods from Egypt is summarised.
The presence of Galerix molars in the South German fossil locality Hammerschmiede 3 is interpreted as evidence for a reimmigration of West European origin into the North Alpine Foreland Basin at the transition of the Middle to Late Miocene. The brief re-appearence of Galerix in southern Germany can be used as a biostratigraphic marker that allows promising correlations between local biostratigraphic subdivisions from Spain and Germany, suggesting that, contrary to previous thought, the Hammerschmiede locality may antedate the hipparionine horses’ appearance event. Based on the supposed climatic adaptation of galericine taxa and lower vertebrate record, it is hypothesized that short term climatic fluctuations occurred in South Germany around the time of the first appearance of the hipparionine horses in Europe.
Fossil woods from the El Cien Formation have yielded important information on the taxonomic composition and climate of a flora established in the west coast of Mexico during the Miocene. This report of a new genus and species, Ruprechtioxylon multiseptatus Cevallos-Ferriz, Martínez Cabrera et Calvillo-Canadell, is based on woods with the following combination of features: vessels solitary and in radial multiples of 2–3; vestured, alternate, oval to polygonal intervessel pits; vessel-ray and vessel-parenchyma pits similar in size to intervessel pits, but with slightly reduced to reduced borders; 2–5 septa per fibre; scanty paratracheal, unilateral and vasicentric axial parenchyma; uniseriate homocellular rays, occasionally locally biseriate; crystals in fibres. The presence of Ruprechtioxylon (Polygonaceae) in the El Cien Formation confirms that plants of lineages growing today under contrasting climates lived together in the past. This record adds a new species to the growing list of Neotropical taxa that were present in Mexico prior to the great Plio-Pleistocene exchange of biota in the Americas.
From the early Miocene El Cien Formation, Baja California Sur, Mexico, a new Tapirira species is described. Among the diagnostic features that relate T. peninsularis Martínez-Cabrera & Cevallos-Ferriz sp. nov. with extant species of the genus are libriform septate fibers, radial canals with 2–4 layers of epithelial cells, and scanty paratracheal to vasicentric axial parenchyma. In order to establish similarity between wood of T. peninsularis and fossil and extant species of the genus, cluster and principal component analyses were carried out. Numerical analyses support that Tapirira peninsularis is distinct from other extant and fossil species of the genus. Quantitative characters like frequency of radial canals, diameter of fibres, vessel element lumen, and height and width of the rays with radial canals are important in distinguishing between these taxa. Though these wood characters are quantitative, they also have been useful in the recognition of two subgenera within the genus. Recognition of this new species, along with the fossil record of the group, and a phytogeographic analysis suggest a low latitude North American origin for the genus, and a subsequent introduction to southern latitudes.
Silicified woods from the lower Miocene Yanagida Formation were collected from two sites, Mawaki and Uchiura, in the northeastern Noto Peninsula, central Japan. Among 80 specimens, 15 species representing 13 families were identified, including six new species: Torreya mioxyla (Taxaceae), Castanopsis uchiuraensis (Fagaceae), Camellia japonoxyla (Theaceae), Stewartia notoensis (Theaceae), Distylium chiharu-hirayae (Hamamelidaceae) and Aesculus mioxyla (Hippocastanaceae). The fossil wood floras from these two sites contain evergreen and deciduous dicotyledons and have a similar composition. These floras are compared to the fossil wood flora from Monzen and to the Daijima-type compression fossil flora. The composition of the fossil wood floras of Mawaki and Uchiura suggests they represent a mixed mesic forest of conifers, deciduous dicotyledons and evergreen dicotyledons.
diversity and distribution (Estes, 1983 ; Albino, 1996a, 2011 ; Albino and Brizuela, 2014 ). In 1899, Florentino Ameghino erected the extinct iguanid genus Erichosaurus on the basis of tooth-bearing remains recovered from sediments of the Santa Cruz Formation (late early Miocene) in the southeast of