Presented here are some aspects of an archaeological investigation conducted in eastern Mauritania in the region of Dhar Nema, a south-eastern extension of the Oualata and Tichitt cliffs (Dhar). This evidence is presented with a focus on its environmental context. The escarpment of the Dhar, a specific geomorphological environment, provided a refuge geoecosystem that continued to supply water during the second part of the Holocene. During the period leading to the current aridity in the southern Sahara, the neolithic populations came there to seek refuge. Amongst more than 70 sites studied, six were chosen that each illustrate a different topographic and ecological context and the interactions of the populations with these. Their location corresponds to varied geological “accidents” oriented perpendicular to the escarpment and in direction of the Baten. In order to survive in this fragile environment during this warming period, the populations developed essential social and technical innovations. These sites have evidenced the characteristics of the evolution of a culture that existed from the 3rd millennium before our era, with notably a social organisation in villages as well as agricultural practices and animal husbandry, which developed from the commencement of their sedentarisation.
A right bank tributary of the Niger River, the Mekrou, has formed a strongly incised river bed within clayey to sandy alluvium, locally interrupted by thin layers of gravel and coarser deposits. The alluvia give evidence to different climatic conditions: finer material was accumulated during flooding within a humid period, whereas the arid times seem to be reflected by coarser sediments. The cyclic facies change of sedimentation gives evidence for a repeated shilft in climate and hydrologic conditions, assuming that the alluvia originate in the upper Pleistocene. Some human artefacts are associated to the different gravel layers (subjacent bed = Palaeolithic, intermediate bed = middle Palaeolithic, overlying bed = ‘recent’ Palaeolithic, Neolithic, and iron Metallurgy). The absence of terraces, the occurrence of sandy sediments on the border of the river bed indicates to active morphodynamic processes; some angularly shaped meanders give evidence for a rapid change of drainage and leads to the hypothesis of a modified flow-off by the river’s recent capture.
(néolithique) du Viêt-Nam, Geoclemys palaeannamitica BOURRET, 1941, permet d'en modifier l'attribution générique: cette Tortue appartient au genre Chinemys SMITH, 1931 essentiellement chinois; elle est bien individualisée et plus grande que les représentants actuels du genre. Abstract. Several accurate
Español . Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Estudios Africanos , Barcelona .
Bachir Bacha , A. 2000 . Nouvelle contribution à la compréhension du Néolithique de l’Algérie orientale: le matériel archéologique de la grotte Capeletti, collection Thérèse Rivière . L
To date, archaeological sites dated between the 7th and 4th millennia cal BC are rare in West Africa. The Neolithic workshop of Promontoire at Ounjougou, Mali, had specialized in the bifacial shaping of armatures on sandstone, a local raw material. This industry was discovered in the upper section of a sequence of mixed fine red loess, dated near the site within an interval between the 6th and 4th millennia cal BC (OSL date of 6.3 ± 0.8 ka), while the geomorphological analysis of the zone and the insertion of the site into neighbouring sequences by radiocarbon dating yield a terminus ante quem of 3500 cal BC, confirming the attribution of the sequence to the Middle Holocene. While typological similarities exist between this bifacial industry and those of the Tilemsi Valley, the Windé Koroji, in southwest Nigeria and the Kintampo culture in Ghana, there remains a significant chronological discrepancy. Moreover, the archaeological material from West African sites contemporaneous with Promontoire Néolithique is most often characterized by a microlithic industry. In the present state of knowledge, the industry of Promontoire Néolithique, chronologically isolated, falls within a dynamic of population movement or influences preceding the current aridity, perhaps associated with climatic changes that took place during the Middle Holocene between the 6th and 3rd millennia cal BC.
, religion et archéologieLeiden2014, Al-MaqdisiM.BraemerF.DentzerJ.-M.Hauran, V. La Syrie du Sud du Néolithique à l'antiquité tardive. Recherches récentes. Actes du colloque de Damas 2007, I.Beirut2010, BlömerM.LichtenbergerA.RajaR.Religious Identities in the Levant from Alexander to Muhammed. Continuity and
sur la route Damas-Le Caire. Depuis l’ère néolithique, elle a toujours possédé des centres urbains fortifiés, dont certains (p. ex. Megiddo) étaient florissants à l’époque biblique. Sa position stratégique lui a valu d’être le théâtre de batailles cruciales avant et après l’Islam: Ṣalāḥ al-dīn et d
en 1980, a été fondée en 1832 par Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [q.v.], fils de Muḥammad ʿAlī [q. v ]; son nom provient du grec myrsini (fiupatv-) «myrte», arbre qui pousse dans la région. Au Nordouest de Mersin est situé le höyük néolithique de Yümüktepe, qui était solidement fortifié au Ve millénaire avant notre