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Miroslav Mareš

Introduction Since they first came into being, fascism and National Socialism have been the ideological basis of certain separatist movements. This is also true of part of the Moravian movement that has been active on the territory of today’s Czech Republic. This article identifies the basic

Terje Emberland

. From its debut in 1935 to its last issue in 1945, Ragnarok was the most radical national socialist publication in Norway. Before the occupation in 1940, the journal was politically independent and regarded it as its chief mission to criticize all half-hearted imitators of National Socialism within

Julia A. Ireland

Scandalous . It is the single word most often used to characterize Heidegger’s 1935 reference in Introduction to Metaphysics 1 to the “inner truth and greatness of n.s . [National Socialism].” 2 The consistency with which it is deployed by nearly everyone writing on Heidegger’s politics

Mikael Nilsson

century. One article, written by Frederick K. Wentz, was published in the American journal Church History in 1962, and in it Wentz investigates three Catholic journals and their reactions to National Socialism between 1933 and 1937 (but attitudes to communism and Italian Fascism are also mentioned). The

Martin Kristoffer Hamre

influenced by Italian Fascism and German National Socialism. Previous research on the foundation of the NS and its early years, conducted almost exclusively by Norwegian historians, primarily focused on the internal, domestic development of the NS. 5 Most historians have classified the NS as fascist

Joachim Scholtyseck

Because certain movements in the Arab world of the 1930s and 1940s showed similarities to Mussolini’s and Hitler’s regimes, historians have drawn comparisons with the fascist and National Socialist dictatorships. But not even those arguing for the concept of a “generic fascism” are able to wholeheartedly subsume these movements under their fascist rubric. Fascism and National Socialism evolved in Europe, were shaped by the mood at the fin de siècle, became effective after the First World War in a unique political, social, economic and cultural atmosphere, and only lost their appeal in 1945 at the conclusion of the Second World War. They flourished in industrialized societies and aimed—in novel and twisted ways—at reversing the liberalization of 19th-century Europe. They emphasized power, national rebirth, military order and efficiency; and they were, in the case of Germany, driven by anti-Semitism and racism, resulting in totalitarian rule with genocidal consequences. National-socialist and fascist movements and regimes required the atmosphere and culture of liberal democracy as a foil—and liberal democracy was virtually nonexistent in the Near and Middle East. The preconditions for fascism were thus lacking. Colonial rule was still in place, traditional culture still prevailed in these mainly rural societies, and their small bourgeois parties showed greater allegiance to their clans than to liberal and secular ideologies.

Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm and Nicolaisen, Carsten

[German Version] National Socialism as a political movement was born in Munich in 1919 with the founding of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) appealing to a nationalistic and anti-Semitic lower middle class. Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, it soon gained a following

Behrenbeck, Sabine

, as well as to the unconditional sacrificial readiness of the belief of their followers, thus demonstrate numerous similarities to religious systems, that they are also designated as → political religions. Besides the Communist → veneration of persons, it is especially National Socialism that ranks as

Matthew Kott

National Socialisms as a Fascist Sub-Genus Of the vast and growing corpus of scholarly and popular literature on national socialism – usually pertaining to Nazi Germany – very rarely is this fundamental concept defined. The reasons for this could be twofold. Firstly, it might be assumed as self

Mommsen, Hans

[German Version] Resistance to National Socialism included measures and actions aiming to overthrow the Nazi system together with actions to save Jews and other persecuted groups. Resistance fell into four phases. From 1933 to 1938, it came from groups that formed around parties and organizations