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Pär Frohnert

period in several West European states. 2 However, the sheer number of NGOs – over twenty – and a lack of coordination, weakened their position. 3 In 1933, the first refugees escaping Nazi Germany arrived. Travelling to Sweden from the Continent was only possible by sea, which probably helps to

Networks of Refugees from Nazi Germany

Continuities, Reorientations, and Collaborations in Exile


Edited by Helga Schreckenberger

This volume focuses on coalitions and collaborations formed by refugees from Nazi Germany in their host countries. Exile from Nazi Germany was a global phenomenon involving the expulsion and displacement of entire families, organizations, and communities. While forced emigration inevitable meant loss of familiar structures and surroundings, successful integration into often very foreign cultures was possible due to the exiles’ ability to access and/or establish networks. By focusing on such networks rather than on individual experiences, the contributions in this volume provide a complex and nuanced analysis of the multifaceted, interacting factors of the exile experience. This approach connects the NS-exile to other forms of displacement and persecution and locates it within the ruptures of civilization dominating the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

Contributors are: Dieter Adolph, Jacob Boas, Margit Franz, Katherine Holland, Birgit Maier-Katkin Leonie Marx, Wolfgang Mieder, Thomas Schneider, Helga Schreckenberger, Swen Steinberg, Karina von Tippelskirch, Jörg Thunecke, Jacqueline Vansant, and Veronika Zwerger


Horst Junginger

The Scientification of the "Jewish Question" in Nazi Germany describes the attempt of a considerable number of German scholars to counter the vanishing influence of religious prejudices against the Jews with a new antisemitic rationale. As anti-Jewish stereotypes of an old-fashioned soteriological kind had become dysfunctional under the pressure of secularization, a new, more objective explanation was needed to justify the age-old danger of Judaism in the present. In the 1930s a new research field called “Judenforschung” (Jew research) emerged. Its leading figures amalgamated racial and religious features to verify the existence of an everlasting “Jewish problem”. Along with that they offered scholarly concepts for its solution.

Grant W. Grams

institutions of higher learning in Nazi Germany; the number of foreign nationals forced to leave is unknown due to the lack of research on this topic. Although the fate of Jewish professors and students has been researched non-Jewish, non-German and non-Aryan instructors has been a neglected topic within the

Adam Tooze

’ that runs through the narrative, but regards Wages critically as a frustratingly incomplete synthesis of recent writing about Nazi Germany. Dylan Riley is far less persuaded by the ‘golden thread’ and offers a searching examination of the book’s inner logic. Whether critical or not, these are the


Edited by Helen Roche and Kyriakos N. Demetriou

The first ever guide to the manifold uses and reinterpretations of the classical tradition in Mussolini’s Italy and Hitler’s Germany, Brill’s Companion to the Classics, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany explores how political propaganda manipulated and reinvented the legacy of ancient Greece and Rome in order to create consensus and historical legitimation for the Fascist and National Socialist dictatorships.
The memory of the past is a powerful tool to justify policy and create consensus, and, under the Fascist and Nazi regimes, the legacy of classical antiquity was often evoked to promote thorough transformations of Italian and German culture, society, and even landscape. At the same time, the classical past was constantly recreated to fit the ideology of each regime.

Patrick Bernhard

Historical Strands in the Interpretation of Italian and German Racism Conventional historical wisdom has long viewed racism as a point of distinction between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. 1 Particularly in the decades immediately following the war, scholars identified racism and anti

Anne-Kathleen Tillack-Graf

Even today, almost 70 years after the political end of National Socialism, there are numerous myths being woven around Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime. The most stubborn is that he abolished unemployment. Work was indeed decisive in Nazi Germany: it helped Hitler’s political rise and that of his Nazi Party; it supported the war, brought economic gains, upheld the Nazi state and could save and destroy lives. After the campaign issues of ‘work’ and ‘unemployment’ which made Hitler and his party popular among the population and ultimately contributed to the seizure of power, the Nazi regime established the Arbeitsschlacht (labour battle), where numerous jobs were created which eventually led to full employment and a labour shortage. To compensate the shortage of workers during the war, in addition to German citizens like women and the youth, inmates from concentration camps, prisoners of war and civilian foreign workers were deployed. Therefore by the period of National Socialism, some 20 million people from across Europe had to perform forced labour for the Reich, its businesses, its economy and its war. The Nazi state would not have lasted for as long as it did without this deployment of the various forms of forced labour. Prisoners’ capacity to work often decided their fate, as the Nazi regime considered those unable to work to be useless consumers of food and thus without purpose in the system. Although the motto of almost all concentration camps and ghettos was ‘Arbeit macht frei’ (work sets you free), in fact what occurred was ‘extermination through labour’. The prisoners were supposed to make a profit for the German economy and thereby work themselves to death. This was an efficient method of killing in the eyes of those in power. These various meanings of work within National Socialism will be presented chronologically.

Christian Gerlach

particularly destructive dynamics in settler colonies ( Moses 2005 ; 2008). As for Nazi Germany, while it is still uncertain what contribution the application of the concept of settler colonialism can make to our understanding for German policies in Eastern Europe in general (a proponent of this view is

Moss, Kenneth

Bibliographic entry in Chapter 12: The United States, Europe, and Asia between the World Wars | Biographical Studies authorMoss, KennethimprintDelaware History 17 (Fall 1977): 236-49.annotationParticularly in the period 1933-1940, Messersmith helped shape American attitudes toward Nazi Germany. He