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Luís Felipe Toledo, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Carlos Jared, Vanessa Kruth Verdade and Marta Maria Antoniazzi

poison from its parotoids. Keywords : Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae, defence, granular glands, poison glands. Amphibians commonly use toxic, cutaneous se- cretions produced by glands spread over the body as a defence against predators (Duellman and Trueb, 1994). In bufonids, these glands are grouped behind

Manfred Horter and Hartmut Greven

experimental predators (rats, chickens, ducks) find juvenile metamorphosed fire salamanders, Salamandra salamandra, with functioning mucous and poison glands fully palatable; dogs, however, do refuse them. Most of the juveniles show a predator-avoidance behaviour by fleeing. The observations are discussed with

Renée Fénéron, Pierre Jaisson and Jean-Luc Durand

degenerated ovaries but a well- developed reservoir of the poison gland. Our study, which was based on individual marking and multidimensional analyses, evidenced that the behavioural differences recorded among workers of a same age class are related to at least one physiological parameter. It means that

Thiago J.S. Alves, Valéria Wanderley-Teixeira, Álvaro A.C. Teixeira, Christian S.A. Silva-Torres, José B. Malaquias, Bruno F. Pereira, Flávio H. Caetano and Franklin M. da Cunha

B. vulgaris indicate a correlation between morphology and exercised function. V1 and V2 are rigid, elongated, and overlap forming a lumen that allows the passage of eggs and secretion from the poison glands through movements generated by the sliding of these valves (Brown & Anderson, 1998 ). The

M. K. Khare and A. K. Sahu

Tadpoles of Rana danieli Pillai and Chanda were collected from temporary rain pools in marshy places at Umling situated at 296 m above sea level (91° 48’ E , 25°58’ N) about 65 km north of Shillong at Meghalaya hills. They are characterised by the keratodont formula 1:1+1/1+2:2, the presence of poison glands on the ventral and lateral abdominal surface, and a lateral line system on head and trunk region. Their structural features confirm the allocation of this species to the subgenus Hylarana.

Bernhard A. Huber

sections revealed that the clypeus of the male (but not the female) is underlaid by a tissue that closely resembles the tissue of the poison glands (fig. 3). Two lines of evidence suggest a functional correlation of this tissue with the cuticular lobe: (1) a closely related (as yet undescribed) species

Luis Pereira

metameric pore) longer than the anterior portion (Figs 12-14); females with 55, 57, 59, 61 or 63 pairs of legs and males with 53, 55 or 57 pairs of legs; shape of calyx of poison gland as in Fig. 21. Remark: Morphological characters in Table 2 diff erentiate P. tenebrosus from P. heurtaultae . Type material

Hugo Torres-Contreras and Hermann Niemeyer

., 2001), although directional fidelity to trunk routes after massive disturbances such as rain- falls may depend on visual orientation based on the sun compass and fa- miliar landmarks (Hölldobler, 1976; Bregy et al., 2008). The major com- pounds produced by the poison gland are alkylpyrazines

L.J. Walley

that they were poison glands used to paralyse the planktonic crustaceans on which Scalpellu?a feeds. Thomas (1944) described the 'salivary' glands in LelaJ hilli Leach, 1818, and in Balanus perforatuJ Bruguière, 1789. In both species there were two such groups of glandular cells: the first group

Luis Pereira

Myriapodology 2 (2008) 205-230 210 Forcipular segment: tergum trapeziform with an irregular transverse median row of ca . 9 large setae and a few additional smaller setae on the remaining surface (Fig. 14). All arti- cles of telopodites without teeth. Relative size of poison gland as in Fig. 15, calyx