relations commerciales, économiques et culturelles dont le périmètre et le cadre se trouvent redéfinis depuis la suppression de l’exclusif colonial en 1808 et l’indépendance en 1822. Au XIX e siècle, alors que l’empire colonial portugais d’Afrique est encore à l’état de chimère, le Brésil et le Portugal
From early contact with the Portuguese and conversion to Christianity in the late 15th century and continuing through the Counter Reformation, the Kingdom of Kongo resisted Portuguese colonialism while remaining steadfastly loyal to the Roman Catholic Church. Against the turbulent backdrop of the growing Atlantic slave trade, internal conflict and power struggles, and Portuguese presence in Luanda, Kongo repeatedly resisted the temptation to break from Rome and establish its own Church, in spite of Portuguese control of the Episcopate. In the late 16th century King Álvaro clashed with the Portuguese Bishop, but remained faithful to the church in Rome. In the early 17th century, Kongo armies repelled Portuguese invasions from the south while kings continued to lobby for more Jesuit and later Italian Capuchin missionaries, whom they needed, above all, to perform sacraments vital to Kongolese Catholics. Another opportunity to split from Rome came when Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita created the Antonian movement in 1704 and denounced the Catholic Church. Instead, she was captured and burned at the stake while King Pedro IV remained faithful to the Capuchin missionaries. In contrast to Portuguese Angola, where Jesuits were deeply implicated in slave trading, the Capuchins in Kongo did not own slaves and, for the most part, both resisted and criticized the slave trade.
NOTES ET DOCUMENTS IBN M � DJID ET LES PORTUGAIS PAR ABDELHADI TAZI La plupart des ouvrage d'Ibn Madjid, lesquels d6passent la trentaine, ont 6t6 composes avant I'arriv6e des Portugais en Inde. Cependant, certains 6crits (en particulier deux urdjuza-s intitulees al-Sufaliyya - de Sufäla, sur la
L'ARRIVÉE DES PORTUGAIS EN CHINE1) PAR HENRI CORDIER. CHAPITRE I. Le Monde au XVe Siècle. Depuis le milieu du XIVe siecle, un voile 6pais s4parait de La route O .d d d l'E A O. b 1 ' I d'Asie par 1'Occident, le monde extreme Orient encore bouleverse par les terre. chevauchees fantastiques et
In contemporary Portuguese literary prose two types of novel may be distinguished. Many novels and stories deal with life in the city. They are obviously topical and are accepted as a matter of course. Well-known authors of ‘city novels’ are Caroso Pires and Lobo Antunes. Other novels are set in the countryside. Their authors, like, for instance, Saramago and Agustina, reject being labelled in any way and do not wish to be seen as representatives of a genre. The opposition between the city and the countryside is therefore implicit. It does not play a role in Portuguese literary criticism, which has perhaps also shied away from the subject because of the complex nature of most rural novels. Some of these intricacies are examined in this article which focuses on the works of Hélia Correia and Pinheiro Torres.