In the age of Open Innovation, it is vital for a country in the lower middle-income bracket to free itself from those constraints which seriously weaken the links between science and industry. A descriptive analysis of these linkages in a post-Soviet economy—Armenia—sheds some light on developments in policy-making which reinforce the interests of the private sector in the academic research and development (R&D) sphere. However, the way of thinking is still predominantly the ‘science-push’ model—which is far removed from the (horizontal) Triple Helix concept. According to empirical analysis, the scarcity of innovative companies is a serious handicap for industry-science collaboration and if the private sector has little demand for knowledge or science, then the innovation system cannot be effective. Very few higher education institutions (HEIs) or research institutes have devoted attention to the management of technology transfer, including necessary human resources. Human capacity problems, outdated infrastructure and an ageing workforce are significant barriers in scientific organisations. The autonomy of scientific organisations is an important asset which only half-exists in Armenia. On the escape route from a command economy, there are two potential traps on the way of autonomy: one occurs when the state overarches legal autonomy and creates a semi-autonomous situation; the other arises when the state is reluctant to regulate the framework for autonomous scientific organisations. Both exist in Armenia.
This article examines the impact of changes in the economic space of the Soviet Union on the formation of the economy of the Russian Federation. The compression of economic space after the dissolution of the ussr was accompanied by a contraction of economic activity. This process decentralized and disintegrated the post-Soviet economy. The once unified Soviet economic system was divided into an array of loosely coupled local systems. Due to a shortage of manpower and resources in the new Russian Federation, an economic center (Moscow) formed around the new Russian economic space. The problem of the expansion of the Russian economic space through regional integration, the expansion of economic ties, and the annexation of the territories is no less complex, but Russia is in the early stages of this process and is not yet possible to trace its impact on the Russian economy.
Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), served as the regional adviser to the newly inde- pendent economies o f Central Asia between December 1992 and D e c e m b e r 1993. With the publication o f The Economies o f Central Asia, Pomfret concentrates on the post-Sovieteconomies o f the Central Asian
nu- ances of Islam in Uzbekistan. The only critique the reviewer has of this study is chapter eight: the relationship between doing business in a post-Sovieteconomy and an Osh Bibiyo is not clear. Overall, it seems the author achieved her desired outcome and demonstrated her thesis. One other
’viv’s post-Soviet civil society, artistic endeavors like Dzyga face considerable difficulties surviving in the post-Sovieteconomy. While offering symbolic power to L’viv’s intelligentsia, this civil society is fragmented into closed milieus. Thus, members of Spadshchyna know little about the activities
consequences, utilized these statistics in creating regulatory measures that simultaneously attempted to shape both the border control and customs regulations and the emerging free market space of the post-Soviet Russia. Keywords post-Sovieteconomy , shuttle trade , gender , Russian border crossing
for the region’s long term economic success. Competition between European-oriented and Russian/Eurasian-oriented economic, political and security integration projects has had mixed effects for individual post-Sovieteconomies, but has clearly driven worsening tension between Russia and the West, with
exclusively security-minded manner, as an indigenous response to the domination of the post-Sovieteconomy by the ruling oligarchy in Tashkent ( Ilkhamov 2006 ).
Despite their dismantling in 2005, the Akramis continue to be seen in Central Asia as a possible model for economic organization and
choosing to not bribe government officials, some of which may be peculiar expressions of market actors moralizing markets in the context of post-Sovieteconomy.
Halal certification, although presented as a technical matter that will contribute to transparency in the market, is mostly anchored in the
-scale development of private enterprise in the late-Soviet and post-Sovieteconomy was in the sphere of agriculture. When, after tentative beginnings in 1986 with legislation legitimizing carefully-defined areas of "individual economic activity" (carefully balanced by a companion law emphasizing the illegitimacy of