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& Rothman, 2009 ). Behavioural ecology thus provides a useful first approximation to understand behavioural variation, but may not always be sufficient (Borgerhoff Mulder, 2013 ). Figure 1. Behavioural reaction norms express how individuals respond to variation in the environment ( x -axis) by

In: Behaviour
Author: Jack J. Windig

SEASONAL POLYPHENISM IN BICYCLUS SAFITZA: A CONTINUOUS REACTION NORM by JACK J. WINDIG (Section of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Population Biology, University of Leiden, Schelpenkade 14A, 2313 ZT Leiden, The Netherlands) SUMMARY The tropical butterfly Bicyclus safitza has a dry season

In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology

studying the evolution of animal personalities. Keywords : behavioural syndrome, quantitative genetics, genotype environment interaction, reaction norm, phenotypic plasticity, context dependence, Parus major . Introduction Individual differences in e.g. aggression, neophobia, exploration and bold- ness in

In: Behaviour

. European Journal of Soil Biology (in press) Begon M. Harper J.L. Townsend C.R. Ecology: individuals, populations and communities., 3rd ed. Blackwell Science Oxford 1996 Berrigan D. Charnov E.L. Reaction norms for age and size at maturity in response to temperature—a puzzle for life historians

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution
Author: Dan Cohen

different environments: effects on environmental sensitivity (reaction norm) and on mean performance. Genet. Res. 56: 57-70. Holt, R.D., Gaines, M.S. 1992. Analysis of adaptation in heterogeneous landscapes: implications for the evolution of fundamental niches. Evol. Ecol. 6: 433-447. Jaenike, J

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

canalization. We assessed reproductive tactic plasticity by comparing the reproductive tactic reaction norms of high and low altitude transition zone striders. Re- action norms indicate the phenotypic response of a population to opposing environmental conditions (Stearns, 1989). As in previous studies (Blanck

In: Behaviour

implications of the potentials of growth retardation and accelaration on the phenotypic plasticity in organisms. The flexibility of the reaction norm of an organism may depend on these potentials of heterochrony. KEY WORDS: body depth, cichlids, constructional morphology, spatial constraint, ecomorphology

In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology

(MMR), neither of which were formally assayed in our experiment. However, MS can equally be represented as the slope of an individual’s reaction norm between two activity states on an arbitrarily scaled axis (i.e., ‘standard’ and ‘maximal’; Figure 1). Since a slope is defined by any two points on the

In: Behaviour

so, during which developmental stage is adult wing length sensitive to temperature? (3) What is the shape of the reaction norm of wing length on rearing temperature? (4) Can this plasticity be observed under field conditions`? MATERIALS AND METHODS Response period During September 1993 E. arbustorum

In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology

REFERENCES Angilletta, M.J., Wilson, R.S., Navas, C.A., James, R.S. 2003. Tradeoffs and the evolution of thermal reaction norms. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18: 234-240. Angilletta, M.J., Steury, T.D., Sears, M.W. 2004. Temperature, growth, and body size in ectotherms: fitting pieces of a

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution