& Rothman, 2009 ). Behavioural ecology thus provides a useful first approximation to understand behavioural variation, but may not always be sufficient (Borgerhoff Mulder, 2013 ).
Behavioural reactionnorms express how individuals respond to variation in the environment ( x -axis) by
SEASONAL POLYPHENISM IN BICYCLUS SAFITZA: A CONTINUOUS REACTIONNORM by JACK J. WINDIG (Section of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Population Biology, University of Leiden, Schelpenkade 14A, 2313 ZT Leiden, The Netherlands) SUMMARY The tropical butterfly Bicyclus safitza has a dry season
studying the evolution of animal personalities. Keywords : behavioural syndrome, quantitative genetics, genotype environment interaction, reactionnorm, phenotypic plasticity, context dependence, Parus major . Introduction Individual differences in e.g. aggression, neophobia, exploration and bold- ness in
. European Journal of Soil Biology (in press)
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Berrigan D. Charnov E.L. Reactionnorms for age and size at maturity in response to temperature—a puzzle for life historians
different environments: effects on environmental sensitivity (reactionnorm) and on mean performance. Genet. Res. 56: 57-70.
Holt, R.D., Gaines, M.S. 1992. Analysis of adaptation in heterogeneous landscapes: implications for the evolution of fundamental niches. Evol. Ecol. 6: 433-447.
canalization. We assessed reproductive tactic plasticity by comparing the reproductive tactic reactionnorms of high and low altitude transition zone striders. Re- action norms indicate the phenotypic response of a population to opposing environmental conditions (Stearns, 1989). As in previous studies (Blanck
implications of the potentials of growth retardation and accelaration on the phenotypic plasticity in organisms. The flexibility of the reactionnorm of an organism may depend on these potentials of heterochrony. KEY WORDS: body depth, cichlids, constructional morphology, spatial constraint, ecomorphology
(MMR), neither of which were formally assayed in our experiment. However, MS can equally be represented as the slope of an individual’s reactionnorm between two activity states on an arbitrarily scaled axis (i.e., ‘standard’ and ‘maximal’; Figure 1). Since a slope is defined by any two points on the
so, during which developmental stage is adult wing length sensitive to temperature? (3) What is the shape of the reactionnorm of wing length on rearing temperature? (4) Can this plasticity be observed under field conditions`? MATERIALS AND METHODS Response period During September 1993 E. arbustorum
Angilletta, M.J., Wilson, R.S., Navas, C.A., James, R.S. 2003. Tradeoffs and the evolution of thermal reactionnorms. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18: 234-240.
Angilletta, M.J., Steury, T.D., Sears, M.W. 2004. Temperature, growth, and body size in ectotherms: fitting pieces of a