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transgress and; (4) committed to an implicit social contract with believers that is dependent on the rules of reciprocal altruism. The present article examines the possibility that these factors comprise a developmentally based, adaptive information-processing system that increased the net genetic fitness of

In: Journal of Cognition and Culture

scientist describe the same phenomenon, and the use of the term friendship for animals seems justified. Keywords : close social associations, friendship, social benefits, relationship quality, coopera- tion, reciprocal altruism. 4) Corresponding author’s e-mail address: jorgmassen@gmail.com © Koninklijke

In: Behaviour

relationships, kin selection, reciprocal altruism, social organization, grooming. Introduction The evolution of sociality among animals re ects a balance between the advantages and disadvantages of living in close proximity to conspeciŽ cs (Bertram, 1978; Krebs & Davies, 1993). Animals who live in social

In: Behaviour

7050 ext. 2467, Fax +44 171 380 7728 E-Mail c.key@ucl.ac.uk ABC Fax + 41 61 306 12 34 E-Mail karger@karger.ch www.karger.com © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel 0015–5713/00/0712–0077 Accessible online at: www.karger.com/journals/fpr Key Words Paternal care W Reproductive effort W Non-reciprocal altruism W Co

In: Folia Primatologica

this dataset suggests the opposite. If “Big Gods” evolved in part because of their ability to morally regulate groups of people who cannot count on kin altruism or reciprocal altruism to get along (e.g., see Norenzayan, 2013), then we would expect that powerful gods tend to be good gods and that

In: Journal of Cognition and Culture
Author:

Trivers, R.L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology 46: 35-57. R.L. Trivers The evolution of reciprocal altruism

In: Envisioning a future without food waste and food poverty

thanks are due to all. 46 ing begin to exceed the benefits for either breeders or helpers. Although obvious, this approach has not as yet been pursued in any investigation on cooperative vertebrates. The preconditions for the evolution of reciprocal altruism are similar to those for kin selection, as

In: Behaviour

? Alexander (1987) concluded that altruistic cooperation does not follow Trivers’ (1971) very popular, well-balanced, dyadic reciprocal-altruism model. What nomadic foragers actually do, is to assume that if you help someone in dire need in the same band today, then in the future other people, those in

In: Evolved Morality: The Biology and Philosophy of Human Conscience

that altruistic cooperation does not follow Trivers’ ( 1971 ) very popular, well-balanced, dyadic reciprocal-altruism model. What nomadic foragers actually do, is to assume that if you help someone in dire need in the same band today, then in the future other people, those in whatever band you are

In: Behaviour

benefit. Degree of allomaternal interaction with infants should decline as degree of relatedness declines. Theories of altruism or reciprocal altruism (HAMILTON, 1964, TRIVERS, 1971, BERTRAM, 1982) assume that allomaternal care is costly to the allomother (or that benefits are delayed) but beneficial to

In: Behaviour