community members. 1 The “Roma People” and the “Intimate Diaspora” In the case of the Roma (we will return to this designation), as analyzed by Paloma Gay y Blasco ( 1997 ), the cohesion of their community traditionally depended, to a large extent, on the imaginary construction of the female body as an
skeleton that everybody thought had long been buried. In several villages not more than a hundred kilometers from Budapest, people in military uniforms were patrolling the streets and attacking the Roma people. The uniforms had first appeared in 2009, and the alarm had been sounded in every corner of the
Transnational Autonomy: Responding to Historical Injustice in the Case of the Saami and Roma Peoples 1 LUKAS H. MEYER * Columbia Law School, New York 1. Introduction Confronted with group conflicts that appear to be motivated and shaped by experiences of historical injustice, sociologists of
William Kurt Barth
of Roma identity. My evaluation will be based on a selection of the Court’s case law concerning Roma people, namely the three main decisions dealing with the right to a Roma way of life. The Court interpreted the right to respect for private and family life as giving rise to a ‘positive obligation
initiativaes to improve conditions for the Roma peoples who live in the states of Europe. The question is timely given the accession of Romania and Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007. 1 Romania contains the largest concentration of the Roma population in Europe. My article uncovers a schism
suggests the emergence of two competing paradigms in the study of the history of the Roma people in the Ottoman realms. The first of these contends that the Gypsies of the Ottoman Balkans provide a salient example of a group marginalized through stigmatization, segregation and exclusion, 2 whereas the
Sally Holt, Rajiv Jebodh and Jeremie Gilbert
In reviewing the activities of relevant UN human rights institutions, bodies and mechanisms, this chapter identifies and examines some of the main issues that emerged regarding minority rights in the year 2013. It notably analyses how the UN has focused particular attention on the situation and the rights of religious minorities, as well as on the elaboration of the post-2015 development agenda. The article also reviews activities in other issue areas that are important for minorities, such as language, education, combatting racism, hatred and intolerance, and the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities. It highlights developments with regard to specific groups such as Roma, people living with albinism and Dalits. It also examines some of the urgent situations that have arisen from conflicts which have targeted minorities across the globe.
After it was said that uncivilised communities designate people without a history, the decolonial perspective has argued that through the ‘coloniality of power’ the ‘other’ becomes interiorised and racialised in the modern era. The myth of the ‘nomad Gypsy’ is a way of bringing into modernity a special kind of slavery produced and reproduced in Eastern Europe. The ‘nomad’ has not only a linguistic and an historical meaning, but through socio-political analysis it reveals how present political regimes integrate or rejects the nomadic lifestyle. First, the nomadism is attributed with a socially unproductive lifestyle, second, it questions the principle of territorial belonging as the core of the collective identity, and third, it is a myth that started in 13th-14thcenturies. Over the centuries it has brought a negative moral value into the contemporary discourse, shifting from theological level to the epistemic one. Building a geographic structure of power on the European territory, the modern nation-states system results can be seen in, on one hand, the ‘orientalisation’ of the Eastern territories, and on the other, in the colonisation of new lands. As an example, the Romanian culture, being in the ‘Orient,’ was built by paying the price of ‘othering’ the Roma people. The historical analysis states that the Romanians have been the subjects of the Orientalism, and then its agents. The nomad Gypsy reveals the logical and epistemological construction of the coloniality of power within the European identity.
Ireland has changed extensively during the last several years: from being an almost homogenous white country to a much more diverse one. But this picture of the Republic is more complicated that it seems. There are white, strongly racialized people who have been living in Ireland for centuries: Travellers. Their culture and way of living is similar to the Roma people, they are also called ‘Gypsies’ sometimes, but there is a very significant distinction: their skin is white. There are around 30 thousand Travellers in Ireland: they are 98.8% Irish nationals, they are of Irish descent, they speak English, they are Catholics but they are one of the most marginalized minorities in the Republic at the same time. Their life expectancy is much shorter than that of the rest of the Irish population, they have very low education (only 1% of Irish Travellers completed third level), are more often unemployed, and they commit suicide almost four times more often than non- Travellers. In this chapter I propose the framework to examine the processes which might have led to such a situation of marginalization. I argue that the most effective way to explain the Travellers’ low social position in Irish society could be from the whiteness studies perspective. I incorporate Bourdieu’s sociology into this perspective, particularly his notions of symbolic capital, symbolic power and symbolic violence, arguing that whiteness is a form of symbolic capital which gives its owners symbolic power. I say that such whiteness has different shades and in this context: that white Irish are ‘whiter’ than Travelling people who are perceived as mad, primitive others.