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Harley Balzer and Jon Askonas

Russia and China both are endeavoring to transform Soviet-style R&D systems characterized by separate education, research and business spheres into something more suited to a knowledge economy supporting innovation. The Triple Helix model is an attractive configuration, derived from the practices of the most successful innovation systems, and suggesting that the three key actors—universities, business, and the state—might in some instances substitute for each other. A model placing the state at the center appeals to non-democratic regimes and countries endeavoring to catch up with OECD nations.

We compare the Chinese and Russian efforts to implement a Triple Helix program by examining institutional change, epistemic communities, funding, and the role of the state, with nanotechnology as a case study. While both nations have introduced major programs and allocated significant funding, we find that China has been vastly more successful than Russia in promoting collaboration among universities, business, and government to advance research and innovation. We attribute the difference to the quality of state policies that provide incentives for agents and epistemic communities to alter their behavior, an outcome facilitated by conditions at the beginning of reforms, which made the Chinese far more open to learning.

The Imperial Laboratory

Experimental Physiology and Clinical Medicine in Post-Crimean Russia

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Galina Kichigina

Following a humiliating defeat in the Crimean War, the Russian Empire found herself exposed due to major deficiencies in her infrastructure. To gain from European scientific, technical and educational advancements, the Russian Government began to permit studies abroad and relaxed censorship, which brought a new flood of literature into the country. These measures enormously facilitated the growth of Russian science, medicine and education in the late nineteenth century, taking the Empire into a fascinating era of laboratory research, a new cultural and intellectual tradition.
The Imperial Laboratory tells the story of the lives and studies of the leading Russian and German clinician–experimenters who played critical roles in the integration of physics and chemistry into physiology and clinical medicine. A principal theme is the major transformations undergone in military medicine and education. Using a wide range of Russian and German primary sources, this book offers a unique English-language insight into Russian physiology and medicine that will be of interest to both historians and doctors, as well as anyone interested in Russian science and culture.

Ivar Maksutov

the complex relationship between theology and the academic study of reli gion in contemporary Russia, which developed against the Soviet background of Russian science. Keywords theology, academic study of religion, higher education, post-Soviet Russia, religion, communism 1. Introduction After the

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Various Authors & Editors

Herbarium C. B. Trinius, Moscow (1778-1844)
The Herbarium of the Moscow State University

The existing inventory of this collection (Goroshankin, 1885) gives a general idea of the richness of the herbarium. It includes 8,853 species of vascular plants (excluding pteridophytes). Some more specimens belonging to the same collection were found later, but they were not classified or listed. A great number of the herbarium sheets on the Cruciferae family from Trinius’ collection were kept together with L.F. Goldbach’s collection, in accordance with his professional interests.
This collection is considerably richer in authentic specimens by Russian and foreign botanists than certain other collections kept in the MW Herbarium (F. Erhart’s, G. Hoffman’s, L.F. Goldbach’s etc.). It is difficult not to be overwhelmed by emotions when looking at the type specimens by K.L. Willdenov, I.M. Link, O. Swartz, C.P. Sprengel, P.S. Pallas, R.L. Desfontaines or P.D.Villars, sometimes with their genuine signatures. There are, for example, more than a hundred syntypes and isotypes by Bieberstein complete with the labels in his handwriting.

All world floras
Practically all world floras are represented in this collection, from the northern tundra’s in Lapland to Tierra del Fuego in Argentina. Europe is widely represented by specimens from Portugal, Britain, France, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Hungary, Germany, Norway, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy and Poland. Many specimens are from different provinces of Russia: the Crimea and the Caucasus, Southern Russia, Bessarabia, the Volga river valley, Central, Western and Northwestern Russia, the Urals, West Siberia, Pribaikaliye, East Siberia, Kamchatka and Sakhalin. Specimens from Central and South Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Caledonia, the Pacific islands and from North, Central and South America are also represented.

The botanists
It is estimated that more than 210 botanical gardens and individuals contributed to the creation of this herbarium as a unique collection of specimens. The MW part of Trinius’ herbarium has mainly been collected by 114 foreign botanists (from Germany, France, Sweden, Austria, Britain, Switzerland, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain), while only 45 collectors were Russian or Russian-German. This picture is quite typical for Russian science of the 18th and early 19th centuries.

Individual collections
We assume that Trinius’ collection is far from consistent and that it is actually composed of several separate individual collections received by the Moscow State University at various times. The most substantial of them, estimated at several thousand sheets, are that of K.A. Rudolphi from the Greifswald Academy and that of I.A.Weinmann and P. Beck from the Count Orlov’s botanical garden in St. Petersburg. Less rich are the lots collected by G.G. Gmelin, M.H.K. Lichtenstein, W. Tilesius (all from Germany), P. Kitaibel (Hungary), L. Riedel and G. Langsdorf (Russia) and one anonymous author whose labels are scribbled in perfect calligraphic script.

Horne, John

ISFWWS-Keywords: Africa | Belgium | Culture | Economy | France | Gender | Germany | Peacemaking and Continued Conflict | Russia | Science, Technology, and Medicine First published in: Brill's Encyclopedia of the First World WarHirschfeldGerhard KrumeichGerdRenzIrina Pöhlmann Markus CorumJames S

Sabrow, Martin

ISFWWS-Keywords: Austria-Hungary | Britain | Culture | Economy | Germany | Peacemaking and Continued Conflict | Politics | Russia | Science, Technology, and Medicine First published in: Brill's Encyclopedia of the First World WarHirschfeldGerhard KrumeichGerdRenzIrina Pöhlmann Markus CorumJames S

Schmidt, Wolfgang

ISFWWS-Keywords: Culture | Germany | Peacemaking and Continued Conflict | Russia | Science, Technology, and Medicine First published in: Brill's Encyclopedia of the First World WarHirschfeldGerhard KrumeichGerdRenzIrina Pöhlmann Markus CorumJames S.Leiden2012

Kraus, Jürgen

ISFWWS-Keywords: Asia | Austria-Hungary | Britain | Culture | France | Germany | India | Italy | Peacemaking and Continued Conflict | Politics | Russia | Science, Technology, and Medicine | Soldiers & Combat First published in: Brill's Encyclopedia of the First World WarHirschfeldGerhard