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Peter Zarrow

© Koninklijke Brill NV. Leiden 2003 Historiography East & West 1:2 Old Myth into New History: The Building Blocks of Liang Qichao’s “New History” Peter Zarrow Institute for Modern History Academia Sinica, Taiwan Keywords: Chinese historiography; Liang Qichao; late Qing; evolutionism; sage-kings

Lucas Rambo Bender

,此謂聖人設教。資取乎道,行无為之化,積久而遂同於道,內外皆无也。云由神而冥於神也者,言聖人設教,法此神之不測,无體无方,以垂於教。久能積漸而冥合於神,不可測也。此皆謂聖人初時雖法道法神以為无體,未能全无。但行之不已,遂至全无不測。 64 The Zhengyi ’s interjection here that Han must be discussing the beginning of a sagely reign highlights the urgency of its denial that people besides sages—ideally, sage kings—ought to seek to embody or understand wu , an implication that is not found in either the thought of Wang Bi or Han Bo

& West 1:2 Old Myth into New History: The Building Blocks of Liang Qichao’s “New History” Peter Zarrow Institute for Modern History Academia Sinica, Taiwan Keywords: Chinese historiography; Liang Qichao; late Qing; evolutionism; sage-kings; nation. Abstract: In the first years of the twentieth century

Yamin Xin

the flux and flow of the world around them, the sage kings, Yao and Shun, taught the people how to use tools to save the people from exhausting themselves. With their spiritual insights ( shen 神), the sage kings brought transformations without letting the people to acknowledge the changes [since the

Jaeyoon Song

Jaeyoon Song / T’oung Pao 97 (2011) 301-343 Keywords fengjian , feudalism, Song dynasty, Wang Anshi, Sima Guang, Zhu Xi, Book of Docu- ments , Rituals of Zhou , Neo-Confucianism In the Five Classics ( wujing Ḽ䴻 ), we are told that the sage kings of antiquity “enfeoffed” ( feng ⮩ ) royal sons and ministers

Benjamin A. Elman

disguise. Many helped to create it. After 1425, most, fortunately, never had to face cruel but charismatic "sage-kings" like the Hung-wu emperor, Chu Yuan- chang or the Yung-lo emperor, Chu Ti, again. Hence, 29 they could live with the "Tao Learning" disguise rather than have to die for it. 2. Yuan

Chris Fraser

preferable to defensive war. Fearful of an attack by the powerful state of Qi, the Lord of Lu asks Mozi what can be done to save his state. 31 Mozi cites the examples of the four sage-kings, who by teaching loyalty and practicing righteousness rose from small fiefdoms to rule the world, and the four tyrants

Benjamin A. Elman

, henceforth simply Changes], the Documents was regarded by Con- fucian scholars in all dynasties as the most important statement, among the texts that comprised the orthodox Five Classics, of the concrete institutions and practical teachings of the sage-kings of antiquity. Venerated as a sacred Classic (sheng

Wang Bo (王博)

teachings of the sage kings. 1 Adding the phrase “changing the innate nature while engaging in self-cultivation” 2 to the line “[He] aimed at illuminating the teachings of the Duke of Zhou and Confucius” would yield a comprehensive description of Xunzi’s 荀子 [340-245 bce ] philosophy. Xunzi was a

Jeffrey Richey

. . . . This is why the ancient sage kings issued statutes and promulgated laws. . . . 21 From this and other passages, it becomes clear that the “epistemological opti- mism” present in Mohist claims about the knowability of Tian ’s will has an elit- ist edge, in spite of the egalitarian tone found throughout