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War and Sexual Violence

New Perspectives in a New Era


Edited by Sarah K. Danielsson

In the #MeToo era, the scourge of sexual violence in society has come into new focus. It has become clear that women and men have been, and are, victimized to an extent that many had previously not realized. But this invisibility has largely been aided by a history of silencing victims and of impunity for perpetrators. Wartime and military sexual violence has similar patterns of invisibility, silence and impunity. Furthermore, sexual violence in wartime and beyond is a phenomenon that cannot be divorced from broader social, economic and political issues. It is this dual focus on sexual violence itself and its contexualization that lies at the heart of this volume. This volume probes new directions in understanding sexual violence during conflict, as well as analyzing ethnicity, masculinity and their relationships to sexual violence.

Solange Mouthaan

Introduction Sexual violence against men in armed conflict is an issue that is generally overlooked. Recent years have seen a concerted effort to recognise that specific attention must be paid to conflict-related sexual violence. Evidence suggests that the majority of victims are women and


Caterina E. Arrabal Ward

In Wartime Sexual Violence at the International Level: A Legal Perspective Dr. Caterina Arrabal Ward discusses the understanding of wartime sexual violence by the international tribunals and argues that wartime sexual violence often takes place without the explicit purpose to destroy a community or population and is not necessarily a strategic choice. This research suggests that a more focused approach based on a much clearer definition of these crimes would help to remedy deficiencies at the different stages of international justice in relation to these crimes.


Chile Eboe-Osuji

Sexual violence is a particular brand of evil that women have endured—more than men—during armed conflicts, through the ages. It is a menace that has continued to challenge the conscience of humanity—especially in our times. At the international level, basic laws aimed at preventing it are not in short supply. What is needed is a more conscious determination to enforce existing laws. This book explores ways of doing just that; thereby shoring up international legal protection of women from sexual violence in armed conflicts.

Reparations after Conflict Related Sexual Violence

The Long Road in the Western Balkans

Sabine Freizer

Introduction Some two decades after the end of conflicts in the Western Balkans, survivors of conflict related sexual violence ( crsv ) are only beginning to receive reparations for the crimes that they endured. Sexual violence’s systematic use to terrorise and displace populations as part of

Lisa Hultman and Karin Johansson

victimization for long has been conceptualized as deadly violence against civilians, there has been an increasing attention to sexual violence. A growing policy agenda together with several resolutions in the Security Council have emphasized the need to acknowledge and deal with such violence. 2 The

Sarah Williams and Emma Palmer

analysis of the dk regime and the eccc , it has not been subjected to extensive review in respect of its legal treatment of sexual violence. 1 This article partly addresses that omission by focusing upon sexual violence perpetrated against women and girls, as well as forced marriage, during the dk


Yumiko Kita

of the public. A part of the Japan’s Penal Code 5 pertaining to sexual violence crimes was amended and came into force on 13th July 2017. There has three main amendment points: 1) changes in the Article 177 regarding the crime of rape 2) an exclusion from crime indictable upon complaint 3

Building National and Regional Accountability for Conflict Related Sexual Violence

From Prosecutions in the Former Yugoslavia to the African Court of Justice and Human and Peoples’ Rights

Kirsten Campbell

1 Introduction In 1995, the first criminal proceedings began before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia ( icty ). The case of the Prosecutor v Tadic included the first numerated charges of conflict-related sexual violence. 1 This case marked the first step


Maria Sjöholm

6.1 Introduction Sexual violence can take a variety expressions, including forced nudity, sexual harassment and rape. Certain acts have been considered to be inherently more severe in their nature, such as rape, in effect creating a hierarchy of various forms of sexual abuse, apparent also in the