No pre-existing bias in sailfin molly females, Poecilia latipinna , for a sword in males Klaudia Witte 1) & Karin B. Klink (Lehrstuhl für Verhaltensforschung, Universität Bielefeld) (Accepted: 7 February 2005) Summary The origination of female mate preference is still not well known and may

In: Behaviour
A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords up to the 16th Century
Author: Alan Williams
The sword was the most important of weapons, the symbol of the warrior, not to mention the badge of a officer and a gentleman. Much has been written about the artistic and historical significance of the sword, but outside specialised publications, relatively little about its metallurgy, and that often confined to a particular group. This book aims to tell the story of the making of iron and steel swords from the first Celtic examples through the Middle Ages to the Early Modern period. The results of the microscopic examination of over a hundred swords by the author and other archaeometallurgists are given and explained in terms of the materials available in Europe.

[German version] The sword used in Rome's early period is referred to as ensis or gladius in the transmission (Verg. Aen. 7,743; 9,431; 12,458; Liv. 1,43,2). According to Livy, the soldiers of the first three classes ('divisions') in the Servian order of centuriae were equipped with swords (Liv. 1

In: Brill's New Pauly Online
Author: Stanley Isser
The Sword of Goliath offers a fresh view of the biblical story of David, shifting the focus from historicity to issues of genre and popular culture. Isser compares the biblical stories of David with other heroic literature, including the Greek heroes of Homer, King Arthur, and Robin Hood. He suggests that the David stories, most of them now lost, originated in popular heroic literature that continued to grow during the later monarchy and into the Persian period. Isser engages a wide array of biblical scholarship to illuminate the complexity of ascertaining the historicity of much of the David traditions. Readers will find here a new perspective on the biblical David that moves beyond the current historical debate in biblical studies.

Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (
Warfare and Medieval Clergy in Cultural Perspective