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In the age of Open Innovation, it is vital for a country in the lower middle-income bracket to free itself from those constraints which seriously weaken the links between science and industry. A descriptive analysis of these linkages in a post-Soviet economy—Armenia—sheds some light on developments in policy-making which reinforce the interests of the private sector in the academic research and development (R&D) sphere. However, the way of thinking is still predominantly the ‘science-push’ model—which is far removed from the (horizontal) Triple Helix concept. According to empirical analysis, the scarcity of innovative companies is a serious handicap for industry-science collaboration and if the private sector has little demand for knowledge or science, then the innovation system cannot be effective. Very few higher education institutions (HEIs) or research institutes have devoted attention to the management of technology transfer, including necessary human resources. Human capacity problems, outdated infrastructure and an ageing workforce are significant barriers in scientific organisations. The autonomy of scientific organisations is an important asset which only half-exists in Armenia. On the escape route from a command economy, there are two potential traps on the way of autonomy: one occurs when the state overarches legal autonomy and creates a semi-autonomous situation; the other arises when the state is reluctant to regulate the framework for autonomous scientific organisations. Both exist in Armenia.

JEL Classification: 03; 05

Open Access
In: Triple Helix
Author: Frank Garcia
Recent crises in trade policy and globalization highlight both the problematic role of economic inequality in international trade law and the shortcomings of contemporary, largely economic, approaches to this problem and to international trade law generally.

This book argues for an alternative approach to the problem of trade and inequality, as a problem of justice. Drawing on political and moral theory and legal philosophy, the author develops a Rawlsian model for justice as fairness in international trade law. This model highlights the important normative role of the principle of special and differential treatment, which can justify economic inequality by making the wealthy markets of developed states work to the benefit of smaller economies, thus satisfying the difference principle as applied to international economic relations. Applying this model to contemporary trade law, the author offers concrete proposals for modifying existing special and differential treatment doctrine, and suggests ”second generation” policies for the problem of inequality once special and differential treatment is either fully implemented or rendered obsolete.

Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.
Author: Warren Smit


Africa is urbanising rapidly and is facing enormous urban challenges, such as the growth of slums and increasing inequality. Secondary cities, with their smaller economies and less capacitated local governments compared to primary cities, face particularly severe challenges. However, responsibility for key urban governance issues is often fragmented amongst large numbers of government stakeholders with limited capacities and conflicting interests. Key urban governance stakeholders therefore need to be brought together in collaborative processes to jointly develop and implement new strategies that are based on a broader range of interests and meet a broader range of needs. In order to be able to do this, understanding actual urban governance processes, which are essentially about how different actors interact to make and operationalise decisions, is vitally important. This chapter highlights the diversity of actors involved in urban governance in Africa and the complexity of urban governance processes, with Kisumu, a secondary city in Kenya, used as an example. Key actors in urban governance in African cities include all levels of government, political parties, traditional leaders, private sector organisations and informal business organisations (such as traders’ organisations), international agencies and civil society organisations. The basic objects of urban governance can include a wide range of issues, such as land use management, the provision of basic services, ensuring access/mobility and ensuring public health and safety. The diversity of governance actors and of agendas complicates addressing urban issues, but can also be seen as an opportunity for leveraging additional skills and resources through collaborative urban governance processes that bring different stakeholders together to develop and implement more holistic and inclusive strategies.

Open Access
In: African Cities and the Development Conundrum

Through: Merger Control (London: Law Business Research, Ltd., updated annually). Available on Lexis & Bloomberg Law. Michal S. Gal, “Extraterritorial Application of Antitrust – The Case of a Small Economy: Israel,” in Cooperation, Comity, and Competition Policy, ed. Andrew T. Guzman (New York: Oxford

In: Foreign Law Guide

mobilize domestic savings. Their impact was much greater on the smaller economies of Iran, Thailand and Malaya, than on the larger economies of India, China and Rus- sian Asia. While sidestepping a major debate with the dependency theorists, the book concludes that divergences in growth rates in Asia

In: Journal of Asian and African Studies
Author: Lise Lyck

discussion, which are quite different from conditions elsewhere in the world. These small economies are based totally on fishing and are specially vulnerable in matters concerning the environment, this is why en- vironmental security requires special attention. Furthermore, contracts between states and

In: Nordic Journal of International Law

of small economies did not go very far, and their export diversification since the 1950s focused essentially on new commodities. The discovery of new resources had similar effects on larger economies, notably the major oil discoveries made in Mexico in the 1970s. Larger economies were, of course

Open Access
In: Alternative Pathways to Sustainable Development: Lessons from Latin America
Author: Guoqiang Long

. As a large emerging power, China’s increased presence in international value chains will be unlike that of smaller economies, since it will inevitably be accompanied by a rapid rise in its influence on the global economic situation. At present, China is already the world’s second largest economy, and

In: Political Economy of Globalization and China's Options