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Bibliographic entry in Chapter 23: The United States and Sub-Saharan Africa since 1961 | U.S. Foreign Relations with Particular Nations and Regions authorStudy Commission on U.S. Policy toward Southern Africa (U.S.)imprintBerkeley: University of California Press, 1981.annotationThis lengthy study

In: The SHAFR Guide Online
Author: Christine Noe

whose bounds are indeterminate (Ramutsindela, 2013). This paper is about the transfrontier conservation areas ( TFCA s) in the Southern African Development Community ( SADC )and the practices which have transformed these into cross-border tourist destinations. It seeks to pursue an analysis of the

In: The African Review

Bibliographic entry in Chapter 23: The United States and Sub-Saharan Africa since 1961 | Published Primary Materials authorU.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Africa. House of Representatives. Special Study Mission to Southern Africa, Charles C

In: The SHAFR Guide Online
Author: Karim Sadr

In southern Africa, the Later Stone Age and the Early Iron Age are generally treated as separate archaeologies, as if they really were different periods. In fact, the entire Iron Age overlaps with the last part of the Later Stone Age, and it is argued here that at the sub-continental scale the archaeology of one ‘Age’ might be better understood with reference to the other. The point is illustrated by plotting the distribution of all first millennium ceramics on the same map, regardless of their ‘Age.’ This sheds new light on the history of interactions and perhaps population movements in the sub-continent during the first millennium AD.

In: Journal of African Archaeology
Morality and Marginality: Towards Sentient Conservation?
Nature conservation in southern Africa has always been characterised by an interplay between Capital, specific understandings of Morality, and forms of Militarism, that are all dependent upon the shared subservience and marginalization of animals and certain groups of people in society. Although the subjectivity of people has been rendered visible in earlier publications on histories of conservation in southern Africa, the subjectivity of animals is hardly ever seriously considered or explicitly dealt with. In this edited volume the subjectivity and sentience of animals is explicitly included. The contributors argue that the shared human and animal marginalisation and agency in nature conservation in southern Africa (and beyond) could and should be further explored under the label of ‘sentient conservation’.

Contributors are Malcolm Draper, Vupenyu Dzingirai, Jan-Bart Gewald, Michael Glover, Paul Hebinck, Tariro Kamuti, Lindiwe Mangwanya, Albert Manhamo, Dhoya Snijders, Marja Spierenburg, Sandra Swart, Harry Wels.

Multi-culturalism and -ethnicity are key features of African societies and an understanding of traditional belief systems and cultural perceptions about health, illness and healing is therefore pivotal on the African continent. This is all the more true when it comes to mental health. Despite neuro-psychiatric disorders ranking third (after HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases) in contributing to the overall disease burden in South Africa, mental health is still acutely stigmatized and is generally seen as a peripheral and isolated issue. This is partly due to the various cross-cultural causal explanations and perceptions that exist amongst Africans with regard to their mental health. In many of the indigenous languages, no equivalent words for concepts like ‘counselling,’ ‘therapy’ or ‘depression’ exist and traditional beliefs in supernatural causes of, and remedies for mental conditions are rife. It is furthermore not uncommon for people to accept biomedical explanations and treatment for their condition, even while espousing more traditional and cultural (ethno-etiological) perceptions about their mental health, and utilising the traditional treatment options and rituals provided by traditional healers. This chapter will consider some of these mental health ethno-etiologies in Southern Africa and will show how cultural, religious and spiritual beliefs about mental health can colour perceptions and influence communication. An argument will be made for a culture-sensitive understanding of mental illness in Southern Africa, the fundamental principles that underpin African beliefs with regard to health and illness will be considered, and a collaborative therapeutic approach that is culture-sensitive, pluralistic and patient-centred will be advocated. The primary example that will be explored in this chapter is kufungisasa, a cultural construction of the mental illness generally known as depression in Western biomedicine.

In: Culture, Experience, Care: Re-Centring the Patient
Editor: Jonathan Draper
Literacy is essentially about the control of information, memory, and belief, and with colonialism in Southern Africa came the Bible and text-based literacy monitored by missionaries and colonial authorities. Old and new oral traditions, however, are beyond the control of empire and often carry the resistance, hopes, and dreams of colonized people. The essays in this volume recover aspects of Southern Africa's rich oral tradition. The authors, from disciplines such as anthropology, African literature, and biblical studies, delineate some of the contours of the indigenous knowledge systems which sustained resistance to colonialism and today provide resources for postapartheid society in Southern Africa.
Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (

Archaeological sites in the Shashe-Limpopo River Basin, southern Africa, reflect marked population growth and increased socio- political complexity between ca AD 880 and 1290, but the nature of agropastoral management that underpinned these extensive, more complex societies is not well understood. One key question concerns whether localized or more widespread regional strategies were employed to manage large herds of domestic animals. In order to identify potential herding areas we carried out strontium isotope analyses on tooth enamel from domestic fauna recovered at Shashe-Limpopo River Basin sites and compared them with those of modern wild and domestic fauna sampled from the greater region. Values were determined via low-resolution Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Laser-ablation ICP-MS and high-resolution, standard Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS). The low-resolution approaches gave values comparable to data produced by TIMS, within the level of precision required to distinguish geological areas contained in this exceptionally isotopically variable environment. The less invasive laser-ablation ICP-MS method provided a means to sample tooth enamel increments for indications of inter-seasonal movement of livestock. The archaeological data suggest that an inter-seasonal geographical expansion of herd management took place as socio-political complexity increased. A trans-humance or relocating herding strategy would have limited overgrazing of the local river basin landscape and results allow us to revisit hypotheses that overgrazing and environmental deterioration contributed to the subsequent political collapse and abandonment of the river basin at ca AD 1290.

In: Journal of African Archaeology

The Europeans who landed on the shores of the South African Cape from the late 15th century onwards encountered local herders whom they later referred to as the Hottentots (now known as the Khoekhoe). There are written references to the settlements and livestock of these pastoralists, but archaeologists have not had much success in discovering any such sites. This absence of archaeological evidence for recent Khoekhoe kraals has been interpreted by some scholars as an indication for a general archaeological invisibility of nomadic pastoralist sites. This article reports on the archaeology of an extensive, low density surface spread of artefacts, KFS 5 (Western Cape), which possibly represents a Khoekhoe kraal dating to the time of the first contact with Europeans. Data are compared to other archaeological evidence of cattle pens in southern Africa and the issues of the visibility of prehistoric and historic kraals are re-addressed.

In: Journal of African Archaeology